Sunday, January 29, 2017

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Seminar 1
Updating Scientific Evidence about the Effects of Low Humidity on People

Commercial and Industrial IAQ
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Raul Simonetti, Carel Industries SpA
Technical Committee: 5.11 Humidifying Equipment
Sponsor: TC 5.7, TC 9.6, SGPC 10, SSPC 62.1
CoSponsor: 2.1 Physiology and Human Environment
Humidity is often associated to negative concepts like mold and sicknesses related to high levels of moisture in indoor environments and this invariably leads to talks and solutions for reducing it tout court. But, is it really correct to reduce it with no minimum limit? This session sheds some light on the need of a minimum level of humidity for health, well-being and productivity.

1  RP–1630, “Update the Scientific Evidence for Specifying Lower Limit Relative Humidity Levels for Comfort, Health and IEQ in Occupied Spaces”

Melanie Derby, Ph.D., Kansas State University
Nearly 600 papers were reviewed regarding the effects of humidity on comfort, health, and indoor environmental quality (IEQ), of which 70 focused on low humidity (RH40%) and were thoroughly analyzed. Low humidity had little effect on thermal comfort, but increased skin dryness, eye irritation, and static electricity. Low humidity increased the survival of some pathogens, e.g. influenza. Low humidity showed non-uniform effects on volatile organic compound emissions and indoor air quality. Temperature, ventilation rates and time were noted as confounding variables. Most studies with adults utilized exposure times of maximum three hours; few studies used children, adolescents or elderly subjects.

2  40 Is the New 20, Balanced Air-Hydration for Health!

Stephanie Taylor, M.D., Healthcare Acquired Infections Organization
Today, humidification is used primarily to protect materials and aid in manufacturing processes. However, data tells us that proper air hydration is also essential for our health. People resist short term dehydration by thirst-prompted (dry mouth) fluid intake. Conversely, chronic dehydration from water evaporation through skin and respiratory tissues in dry indoor air is unperceivable, yet has dire health consequences. Dry indoor air decreases our resistance to infections and allergies while providing a perfect environment to enhance microorganisms' infectivity and dissemination. This seminar presents new and existing data on the health benefits of proper air humidification.

3  Limiting Criteria for Human Exposure to Low Humidity

Pawel Wargocki, PhD, Technical University of Denmark

ASHRAE research project “Limiting criteria for human exposure to low humidity” was conducted in 2001-2002 at the Technical University of Denmark. The impact of humidity on comfort and working performance was measured subjectively and objectively at 5%rh, 15%rh, 25%rh and 35%rh at 22°C (71.6°F) and at 18°C, 22°C and 26°C at 2.4 g/kg. The effect of low humidity was observed at both clean and polluted indoor environment. The results found that low humidity had negative impact on mucous quality and working performance that requires visual attention. Some interactions between low humidity and air pollution on dryness symptoms were observed.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 2
ASHRAE Conference Crash Course

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Stephanie Kunkel, JMT
Sponsor: YEA, CEC
First time at an ASHRAE Conference? Been coming for years, but still confused? What is a TC? What is a Standing Committee? Who can attend what? What is the AHR Expo? And why is all this happening at once? This crash course provides you with an introduction to all the ASHRAE Conference activities, explains how you can get involved, and allows you to ask questions to experienced attendees.

1  The Ins and Outs of ASHRAE

Chris Gray, Ph.D., P.E., Georgia Power Company
Many of you may be familiar with ASHRAE at the Chapter level. This seminar covers the structure of Society from committees to councils and everything in between. We love our acronyms and when we’re done, you’ll finally know what they all mean and how you can get involved.

2  Make the Most of Your Conference Experience

Frank Rivera, P.E., Mechanical Heating Supply
Now that you’ve got your bearings and know the difference between a TC and a TG, this seminar tells you about the softer side of ASHRAE. You’ll find out what social events you shouldn’t miss and how to make the most of your conference experience.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 3
Hydronic Water Flow Measurement

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Mark Hegberg, Hegberg & Associates
This session covers the fundamentals surrounding water flow measurement in hydronic systems. Why, how, what. Hydronic systems (chilled water, heating hot water, or condenser water) are effectively a HVAC transmission. Pumps, pipes and valves make-up the envelop and their effectiveness can be measured by the volume flow rate of water in the pipe. We measure flow rate through pressure drop - such as valves, orifices, venturis, equipment losses; by pump curve; and with throughput measurement equipment such as ultrasonic and magnetic meters. The merits and practicalities of each are covered here.

1  Hydronic Water Flow Measurement: Part 1

Mads Melchiors, DBHMS Engineers
Lars Mejsner, DBHMS Engineers
This presentation covers the fundamentals surrounding water flow measurement in hydronic systems. Why, how, what. Hydronic systems (chilled water, heating hot water, or condenser water) are effectively a HVAC transmission. Pumps, pipes, and valves make-up the envelop and their effectiveness can be measured by the volume flow rate of water in the pipe. Flow rate is measured through pressure drop - such as valves, orifices, venturis, equipment losses; by pump curve; and with throughput measurement equipment such as ultrasonic and magnetic meters. The merits and practicalities of each are covered.

2  Submetering By Using Pumps

Mark Hegberg, DBHMS Engineers
Submetering is recognized as a mean to optimize building performance, but can be expensive to implement. New electronically controlled pumps, which need to be there in any case, have a lot of built in functionalities which can be used for submetering. These functionalities were initially developed to control the pump itself, but are today interfacing with the BMS system to optimize building performance. This presentation gives an overview of measurement signals, which are typically available from an electronically controlled pump, the accuracy of these signals and how they can be used for submetering.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 4
Indoor Air Quality and Desiccants

Commercial and Industrial IAQ
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Technical Committee: 8.12 Desiccant Dehumidification Equipment and Components
This seminar discusses the use of desiccant dehumidification systems in yielding better indoor air quality. This session also includes information on the significant energy savings to be gained with the provided systems. The three speakers give insight and data to demonstrate the advantages. They discuss the health and IAQ benefits that will occur with these systems and the energy savings aspects. The presentations also provide descriptions of field installed tests for energy and IAQ performance.

1  Indoor Air Quality and Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification

Patrick Leach, Alfa Laval Kathabar
With the inception of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) and ever more energy efficient building structures there is an increased focus on the quality of air within the built environment. The desiccant solutions, LiCl and CaCl₂, used with the LDD technology are extremely germicidal. Any microorganism contacting the solution is eradicated. The critical nature of the Healthcare environment is paramount in respect to IAQ. A focus on the application of LDD within Healthcare settings will be presented, specifically the impact upon pathogens associated with Healthcare acquired infections.

2  Field Operation of a Liquid-Desiccant DX Air Conditioner for High Latent Applications

Andrew Lowenstein, Ph.D., AIL Research
Two novel, high latent, compressor-based air conditioners were operated at military installations during the 2015 summer under the Department of Defense’s Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). Both air conditioners use a liquid desiccant to more than double the latent cooling provided by a conventional air conditioner. Although tested in configuration where they processed an 85/15 mix of return and outdoor air, the high latent capacity of the air conditioners make them ideal candidates for treating 100% ventilation air. The seminar presentation will focus on the field-monitored performance of the prototypes and the positive impact they had on indoor comfort.

3  Field Test Results of an Air Conditioner with Liquid Desiccant Heat Exchangers

Eric Kozubal, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
In the spring of 2016, a 20 ton pilot air conditioner was installed in the extreme climate of Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Liquid desiccant heat exchangers enable systems to condition air to the desired temperature and humidity in a single step. This is made possible because the supply air exiting these exchangers has a dew-point near or even below the evaporator temperature. A system model, used to design the system, predicts a 33% reduction in energy use compared to other available systems. This presentation provides a brief overview of the system design and compare the demonstrated and predicted performance.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 5
Blue Is the New Green: What Is the Water-Energy Nexus?

Water-Energy Nexus
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Nicole Olaes, Randall Lamb Associates, Inc.
In the U.S. water and energy are inescapably linked – both at large scale national and state electrical and water distribution systems, and at building scale systems that trade off on site electrical and water usage. These relationships are sometimes complex, but this seminar aims to deliver a basic understanding of the key issues at play with our current infrastructure and industry practices

1  Thirst for Power: Energy, Water and Human Survival

Michael Webber, Ph.D., University of Texas
Although it is widely understood that energy and water are the world’s two most critical resources, their vital interconnections and vulnerabilities are less often recognized. This farsighted talk offers a new, holistic way of thinking about energy and water—a big picture approach that reveals the interdependence of the two resources, identifies the seriousness of the challenges, and lays out an optimistic approach with an array of solutions to ensure the continuing sustainability of both.

2  Bringing It Home: Overview of the Building Scale Water Energy Nexus

Calina Ferraro, P.E., Randall Lamb Associates, Inc.
This presentation brings the water-energy nexus to the building scale discussing tradeoffs that are made on projects. For example, focusing on energy efficiency using evaporative cooling or irrigated landscape for shading saves electricity locally, but at a higher water use which, in turn uses energy at a municipal level to treat and pump that water. Conversely, air-cooled equipment eliminates cooling tower water use, but at lower efficiency therefore using more electricity which uses water at the power plant. Similar to the “site” versus “source” discussion for energy use, the water energy nexus brings this consideration to water use.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 6
Recent Action in Evaporative Cooling

Water-Energy Nexus
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Mark Modera, Ph.D., P.E., University of California, Davis
Technical Committee: 5.7 Evaporative Cooling
Evaporative cooling and the integration of water evaporation into vapor-compression air conditioning are key components of the water energy nexus. This seminar summarizes a body of current work that includes a direct analysis of the water consumption versus energy savings, a recent ASHRAE standard on evaporative pre-coolers for rooftop packaged equipment, numerous field studies of hybrid vapor-compression/evaporative-cooling equipment, and case studies of designs where the inclusion of indirect evaporative cooling reduced on-site water use.

1  Does Evaporative Cooling Make Sense in an Arid Climate?

Mark Modera, Ph.D., P.E., University of California, Davis
Nasim Tajmand, Ph.D., UC Davis
Electricity generation generally consumes water, meaning energy efficiency reduces water consumption. Evaporative cooling offers substantial energy efficiency gains but consumes water on site, and the impact of evaporative cooling is largest in arid regions which are susceptible to droughts. Net water consumption for evaporative cooling depends on the regional generation mix, water quality, weather conditions, and the water-use efficiency for particular evaporative equipment. This presentation explores total water-use scenarios including a detailed analysis of a theoretical worst-case scenario where all water for evaporative cooling uses energy-intensive desalination, the results of which suggest that evaporative cooling is energy and cost effective.

2  Proposed ASHRAE Standard 212: Testing the Performance of Evaporative Pre-Coolers

Jay Madden, P.E., Southern California Edison
Proposed ASHRAE Standard 212 is a Method of Test for determining the energy and peak electricity demand savings associated with adding evaporative pre-coolers to packaged HVAC equipment. The standard measures the evaporative effectiveness of a pre-cooler as a function of face velocity and weather conditions, as well as the water consumption required to produce that effectiveness. This presentation will discuss the current content of the standard, as well as the rationale for how and why different parameters are measured within the standard. It will also include preliminary test results for different pre-cooler technologies.

3  Performance of Indirect Evaporative and Hybrid Cooling Equipment: Findings from Laboratory and Field Testing

David Vernon, UC Berkeley Center for the Built Environment
Jonathan Woolley, UC Berkeley Center for the Built Environment
Several manufacturers have recently introduced hybrid vapor-compression/evaporative cooling solutions that incorporate the advantages of multiple cooling components into variable speed, multi-mode equipment. These technologies may utilize indirect evaporative cooling, exhaust air heat recovery, desiccant dehumidification (or other components) in combination with vapor compression. This presentation summarizes findings from several laboratory tests, and more than 30 monitored installations of different hybrid air conditioning solutions. It focuses on practical issues in design and commissioning that help ensure performance in operation. In most cases these strategies can reduce full-load cooling demand by more than 40%. Some systems deliver annual savings of 65% or more.

4  R-718 to the Rescue

James Falconer, Affiliated Engineers
With an increasing focus on use of refrigerants with a low GWP (Global Warming Potential), one such refrigerant muscling its way back onto the scene is R-718, better known to most by its chemical formula, H2O. This presentation focuses on two distinct uses of evaporative cooling technologies. The first case investigates DEC for a commercial office building. The second case investigates Indirect Evaporative Cooling for a laboratory building with stringent humidity control requirements. The results indicated combined chiller and fan energy savings greater than 60%. The IEC improved overall energy and water efficiency while providing significant first cost savings.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 7
Designing for the Future –Planning Today’s Buildings for Tomorrow’s Policies

Effects of Climate Change on HVAC&R
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Joseph Kilcoyne, P.E., SC Engineers, Inc.
Technical Committee: 1.4 Control Theory and Application
Organizations are choosing to commit to an increasing number of climate and sustainability goals and policies. How can we plan new facilities and modernizations to meet the unknown needs of the future? See how two organizations are meeting this challenge. The first speaks to the lessons learned from a recently completed $1B “hospital of the future”. The second speaker addresses how her private University campus’ new Climate Action Plan has challenged her design teams to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. See how both facilities are leveraging their BAS systems to validate their ongoing performance against policy goals.

1  The Hospital of the Future: Building with Flexibility in Mind

Daniel Farrow, Palomar Health
When San Diego-based Palomar Health (PH) realized that the state’s seismic upgrade requirements would have been cost-prohibitive to implement in their existing Hospital building, Palomar Health took the opportunity to build a new, technologically advanced hospital that would require its employees to reinvent how they deliver healthcare for the 21st century. The presentation summarizes the advanced design methods and constant focus towards flexibility that will enable this hospital to adapt to virtually any code cycle that may be adopted by the State or other Authority Having Jurisdiction.

2  Planning for Climate Change Policies at the University of San Diego

Melissa Plaskonos, University of San Diego
The University of San Diego’s (USD’s) newly adopted Climate Action (CAP) plan sets a framework to reduce USD’s greenhouse gas emissions and contribution to climate change. The CAP sets out a general methodology for establishing short, medium and long term strategic goals and feedback mechanisms to provide performance data, as well as a number of specific recommendations to improve sustainability performance of the University. This presentation showcases how USD is implementing changes in their campus design standards, energy dashboards, and measurement and verification systems to address their building related impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 8
Blue Is the New Green: The Water-Energy "Next Is"?

Water-Energy Nexus
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Calina Ferraro, P.E., Randall Lamb Associates, Inc.
With the increasing discussion of the water energy nexus, the industry is responding with innovative technologies to improve onsite water and energy use. This seminar highlights new technology being developed to optimize performance as well as proven technology that is gaining new traction as greater attention is focused on this area.

1  Air Cooled vs Water Cooled Chillers

Fred Betz, Ph.D., Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
Water-cooled chillers have for years been the most energy efficient and cost effective means of addressing large cooling loads as is recognized by ASHRAE 90.1. However, as the price of water has increased and the performance of air-cooled chillers have improved those lines have begun to blur. It is no longer clear that the lowest total cost ownership for cooling applications over 300 tons resides with water cooled chillers. This session explores all the factors related to comparing chiller plants including: performance curves, climate, altitude, water quality, first cost and operating cost (water, energy, maintenance, and treatment).

2  Direct and Indirect Evaporative Cooling Technologies

Ransom Hamrick, P.E., Randall Lamb Associates, Inc.
This presentation explores evaporative cooling technologies that can vastly reduce onsite energy use of building systems. Systems explored include direct and indirect airside systems, as well as evaporative pre-filters at condensers. These new systems are compared on an energy and cost basis to conventional air-cooled systems or hydronic systems with a conventional plant and cooling tower. A case study compares the benefits of different systems in climates across the United States to examine the benefits available in different regions.

3  Aiming for Net Zero: Onsite Water Treatment Systems

Charles Upshaw, University of Texas at Austin
As water scarcity and utility prices increase, building water consumption is an increasingly important aspect of sustainability and efficiency. For buildings where water-efficient fixtures and cooling system upgrades have already been made, the final step toward ‘net zero’ water consumption is capture, treatment, and re-use of onsite and auxiliary water sources. This presentation provides an overview of onsite auxiliary water sources, treatment systems and other equipment required for various uses, and the site energy implications of net zero water buildings

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 9
Fire Safety Operations in Commercial Kitchens

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Mark Skierkiewicz, P.E., UL, LLC
Technical Committee: 5.10 Kitchen Ventilation
CoSponsor: 5.6 Control of Fire and Smoke
This session discusses increased risk of fires in commercial kitchens employing solid fuel cooking, resulting deposits of highly combustible creosote deposits in exhaust systems. Case studies will show how solid fuel cooking fires challenge conventional in-hood fire suppression systems and increase the need for strict adherence to code and standards requirements, requirements for clearance to combustible construction, and the need for increased frequency and aggressiveness of duct cleaning. These points will be illustrated by real world examples of fires, fire system performance, issues with code requirements for clearances, and how defined maintenance programs and proper inspections can reduce fire hazards.

1  The Increasing Fire Risk from Solid Fuel Cooking

Doug Horton, D.J. Horton and Associates
This presentation describes the added fire risk with solid fuel commercial cooking of creosote formation and deposition in exhaust hoods and ducts. The presentation discusses the physical and fire properties of creosote, and through selected case studies, will discuss the issues of detection, activation, and suppression with conventional fire suppression systems. This presentation also previews hybrid and newer technology fire systems with electronic monitoring, detection and actuation, suppression with unlimited water and surfactant, along with backup power supply and communication with building management systems.

2  Kitchen Exhaust Duct Fire Safety: Concerns and Solutions

Michael Morgan, Captive Aire Systems, Inc.
Fire hazards in commercial kitchens include ignition source, flame spread, as well as heat transmission concerns. Proper design, installation, and maintenance of kitchen exhaust ducts is critical to the performance and safety of the kitchen ventilation system. Considerations include access for cleaning and maintenance, proper slope, clearances to combustible construction, and reduced clearance protective assemblies. The latest UL 710 Standard for kitchen hoods has incorporated specific testing requirements for insulation, which allows for reduced clearance to combustible materials. Duct systems must also meet clearance requirements, which involves field-installed fire wrap, as well as pre-insulated double wall ducts evaluated to UL Standard 2221.

3  Inspection and Maintenance Operations for Kitchen Exhaust Fire Safety

Michael L Watz Jr., P.E., Accurex Systems/A Greenheck Company
Property loss in the commercial foodservice industry remains huge, commonly results in civilian and fire fighter injury, and most often can be directly traced to the cooking area where food product was the first material ignited. The wide array of effluent handling equipment must be engineered for the specific equipment employed. The inspection and the maintenance procedures must be an ongoing measure to properly control flammable cooking byproduct, and must be conducted by properly trained and qualified persons.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 10
Performance of Chilled Water Pipe Insulation Systems in Humid Environments: Problems, Solutions, ASHRAE Research and the Use of Hygrothermal Analyses

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Manfred Kehrer, P.Eng., JustSmartSolutions LLC
Technical Committee: 1.8 Mechanical Systems Insulation
CHW pipe insulation systems sometimes fail due to long-term moisture accumulation, particularly in unconditioned spaces in humid environments. The first speaker will describe a case study of several school buildings which suffered from severe mold growth and was successfully remediated. A second speaker will describe a case study of a building that experienced extensive CHW pipe insulation failures and was successfully remediated. A third speaker will summarize the findings of laboratory tests on insulated cold pipes in ASHRAE RP-1646. Finally, a fourth speaker will address the results of computerized hygrothermal analyses simulating four different CHW pipe insulation systems.

1  Controlling Mold Growth on Chilled Water Pipe Insulation

Ed Light, Building Dynamics, LLC
Sweating chilled water pipes (CWP) can be a significant source of building dampness and mold. Lines supplying chilled water to air handling units are insulated to prevent surface condensation and conserve energy. Insufficient insulation, incomplete sealing during installation and damage during maintenance are common, allowing condensation to form on surfaces, eventually wetting the insulation and supporting mold growth. A protocol for assessing and remediating mold on CWP insulation and ensuring effective re-insulation, through effective quality control was developed in conjunction with a project for replacing failed CWP insulation in 15 schools. Cost-effective resolution of mold growth WP was demonstrated.

2  Air Conditioned Football Stadium and Convention Center Chilled Water Pipe Insulation Assemblies Failure and Remediation with New Developed Insulation Systems

Willis J. “Bill” Brayman, Brayman Insulation Consultants
At a football stadium & convention center, in Houston, Texas, the original chilled water (CHW) pipe insulation systems required replacement due to extensive moisture intrusions. Although the CHW flowed continuously, the Air Handling Units were shut down when the building was not in use. This allowed the indoor environments to be exposed to Houston’s outdoor high temperatures and humidity during those times. Remediation required replacing the CHW pipe insulation with an insulation system of a totally different design without major pipe relocations and while the CHW circulated through the pipes being reinsulated.

3  Recent ASHRAE Research on Thermal Conductivity of Pipe Insulation Systems Working at Below-Ambient Temperature and in Wet Condensing Conditions with Moisture Ingress

Lorenzo Cremaschi, Ph.D., Auburn University
Mechanical pipe insulation systems are installed on chilled water pipes that operate at below ambient temperatures inside buildings. Water vapor is drawn from the surrounding ambient air toward the pipes and the thermal conductivity of the pipe insulation systems is affected by ambient temperature and water vapor ingress. This talk provides an overview of the findings from two recent ASHRAE funded research projects on this topic. The speaker shows cases in which pipe insulation thermal conductivity increased with moisture ingress. This talk also illustrates the importance of including appropriate insulation thickness safety margins.

4  Hygrothermal Analyses of Four Different Chilled Water Pipe Insulation Systems in a Hot and Humid Climate

Gordon Hart, P.E., Artek Engineering, LLC
Christian Bludau, Dr.Ing., Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics
Mr. Hart will summarize the results of several hygrothermal analyses, using commercially available software, on simulated insulated chilled water pipe, held at a fixed temperature for 25 years in a Houston, Texas ambient environment. The pipe insulation modeled was a highly porous mineral fiber material with each of four different sheet-type vapor retarder jackets. These jackets had water vapor permeance values from a high of 0.134 perm to a low of 0.005 perm. The results show significant differences in predicted quantities of water vapor condensation and in subsequent increases in insulation thermal conductivity between each of the four insulation systems.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 11
The Current State-of-the-Art for an Automated Pathway from BIM Building Models Direct to HVAC Heating/Cooling Load Calculations

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Reinhard Seidl, Taylor Engineering
Technical Committee: 4.1 Load Calculation Data and Procedures
Sponsor: 1.5 - Computer Applications
CoSponsor: MTG.BIM Building Information Modeling
Building information modeling (BIM) is a software-based method to enhance the efficiency of integrated building design including HVAC load calculations. This seminar looks at several different methods of performing HVAC load calculations on the ASHRAE Headquarters building. One method involves performing HVAC load calculations inside the BIM authoring software tool. Another method involves exporting the building information to a standard schema and importing that same information into another vendor's HVAC load calculation tool. This seminar examines the advantages and disadvantages along with the struggles of using these tools to perform comprehensive load calculations.

1  Defining the Baseline for BIM Loads Comparison

Steve Bruning, P.E., Newcomb & Boyd
ASHRAE Headquarters, which is used as the common example, is described and common data assumptions are explained. RTS peak load calculation results included in the Handbook of Fundamentals are described and are used as the baseline in comparing various BIM calculation results.

2  Heating and Cooling Load Calculations from BIM Using Autodesk Insight 360

Krishnan Gowri, Ph.D., Autodesk
BIM models can be enriched with envelope construction and material properties information, schedules and internal loads for creating building energy models (BEM). This presentation summarizes the workflow for performing HVAC load calculations in a BIM authoring environment using cloud-based EnergyPlus design day simulation. The assumptions and best practices for transferring the BIM data for BEM, and the process of transferring the load calculation results automatically to the BIM will be demonstrated with the ASHRAE HQ Building case study. This approach provides architects and designers to perform load calculations without the need to perform any specialized energy modeling tasks.

3  Performing Load Calculations in Aecosim Energy Simulator Using a gbXML File Exported from Revit

Drury Crawley, Ph.D., Bentley Systems, Inc.
This presentation discusses challenges encountered when using gbXML to tranfer information from Revit to AECOsim Energy Simulator (AES). It also discusses the workflow for adding missing information required for heating/cooling load calculations. Load calculation results from AES will be compared to results from ASHRAE heating load and cooling load (RTS) calculations.

4  The Process of Using gbXML to Export the ASHRAE HQ Revit Model to Trace to Perform HVAC Load Calculations

Stephen Roth, P.E., Carmel Software Corp.
This seminar discusses extracting ASHRAE HQ building information from the BIM (in Revit) using Green Building XML (gbXML). Then, it explains how to take the gbXML file and import it into TRACE to perform HVAC load calculations. Ideally, this should be a seamless process where all information transfers perfectly from one vendor's software tool to another and creates an HVAC load calculation at the click of a button. However, in reality, this does not happen. The speaker discusses the difficulties encountered and what practitioners should do to make it as seamless as possible.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 12
Variable Speed Drives and Chillers - Back to Basics

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Rick Heiden, Trane, Inc.
Technical Committee: 8.2 Centrifugal Machines
Sponsor: 1.11, 8.1
CoSponsor: 1.11 Electric Motors and Motor Control
Variable speed drives are increasingly being applied to chillers with both positive displacement compressors and centrifugal compressors. In addition, advancements in variable speed drive technology are continually enabling enhancements in chiller component design and control. From enabling compressors to be designed for optimum speed to eliminating traditional capacity control mechanisms such as inlet guide vanes to hybrid systems with drives on some compression elements, variable speed drives are revolutionizing chiller designs.

1  Variable Speed Drive Basics

Terry Davies, Danfoss
This presentation explains why Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) are used in many HVAC applications and how they operate. Explains variable torque vs constant torque loads. Describes the different Variable Speed Drive (VSD) terms commonly used in HVAC applications and defines the acronyms and names commonly used: 
Variable Speed Drive (VSD), Variable Frequency Drive (VFD), Adjustable Frequency Drive (AFD), Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD), Freq Drive Inverter.

2  Variable Speed Screw Chiller Basics

Robert Feduik, Carrier
Positive displacement chillers, more commonly known as Screw chillers, offer significant energy savings when applied as variable speed chillers. Screw chillers are offered around 550 nominal tons and can be easily incorporated into multiple chiller designs. This seminar segment describes the differences between how variable speed screw chillers and centrifugal chillers operate. An energy analysis demonstrates efficiencies reflecting true building and chiller operating conditions.

3  Variable Speed Centrifugal Chiller Basics

Jeb Schreiber, JCI
Centrifugal chillers are very dependent on operating speed in order to achieve maximum efficiency. Advances in Variable Speed Drive (VSD) technology are enabling optimized operating speeds that improve system efficiency over a broad range of centrifugal chiller applications and operating conditions. This presentation provides technical understanding of how VSD’s work within a chiller system as well as application examples of how that chiller system can be optimized within an HVAC system.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 13
Yes, It Is Your Fault: How Faults Affect Your System’s Performance and How to Model the Faults’ Effects in Advance

Building Operation and Performance
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: David P. Yuill, Ph.D., P.E., University of Nebraska
Technical Committee: 8.11 Unitary and Room Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps
Sponsor: TC 7.5 Smart Building Systems
CoSponsor: 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
Faults happen. They can occur in unitary air-conditioning equipment and cause it to perform below its expected, rated or designed value, leaving owners/operators disappointed. Examples of faults include coil fouling, loss of refrigerant charge, excessive duct flow resistance, economizer faults, etc. This seminar shows results of recent groundbreaking research projects focusing on the effects of faults on unitary equipment, and presents new methods for modeling the effects of those faults. Attendees of the seminar will be prepared to account for these effects when designing, planning maintenance, or predicting building energy performance.

1  Effect of Heat Pump Commissioning Faults on Annual Energy Use

Piotr Domanski, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
This study shows the impact of common commissioning faults on the energy consumption of an air-to-air heat pump installed in a single-family house. Through annual simulations of the house/heat pump system, the study found that duct leakage, refrigerant undercharge, oversized heat pump with nominal ductwork, low indoor airflow due to undersized ductwork, and refrigerant overcharge have the most potential for causing significant performance degradation and increased annual energy consumption. Energy use increased significantly from lowering the thermostat setting in the cooling mode to improve indoor comfort in cases of excessive indoor humidity levels due to installation faults.

2  Modeling the Effect of Vapor Compression Cycle Faults Using Gray-Box Models

Alireza Behfar, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Complete physics-based models of vapor-compression refrigeration equipment can be difficult and time-consuming to produce. A gray-box model uses a mix of physics and measurement data to simplify the modeling process. Gray box models have recently been produced that are capable of accurately modeling the effects of all common faults on the performance of the system. This seminar describes the new approach, and show the results and conclusions from the modeling.

3  Effect of Economizer Faults on Expected Whole-Building Energy Savings

Brianna Brass, Davis Design
Air-side economizers are commonly used in most locations to reduce the cooling load when outdoor conditions are suitable. However, several field studies have shown that economizer faults, such as a stuck damper, are quite common. For small rooftop units, the cost of supplying an economizer can return a slow payback in some locations, and when faults occur, the economizer may not ever pay off. This study simulated the cost outcome using probabilities of faults from field studies to examine the cost-effectiveness of economizers for typical buildings in several climates, to determine payback period, if any.

4  Generalized Models of Fault Effects on Air Conditioners in Heating and Cooling Mode

Mehdi Mehrabi, University of Nebraska
Air-side economizers are commonly used in most locations to reduce the cooling load when outdoor conditions are suitable. However, several field studies have shown that economizer faults, such as a stuck damper, are quite common. For small rooftop units, the cost of supplying an economizer can return a slow payback in some locations, and when faults occur, the economizer may not ever pay off. This study simulated the cost outcome using probabilities of faults from field studies to examine the cost-effectiveness of economizers for typical buildings in several climates, to determine payback period, if any.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 14
Data Driven Energy Auditing, Measurement and Verification

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Technical Committee: 7.5 Smart Building Systems
Sponsor: TC 7.6
CoSponsor: 7.6 Building Energy Performance
This seminar provides an overview of several building energy software programs for commercial buildings (including officers, schools, and data centers) in both the U.S. and China. These programs were developed to collect energy data, provide enhanced visualization, perform energy analytics, benchmark and identify savings opportunities, quantify savings impacts, and support an ongoing commissioning process in actual facilities. Several real-world project examples are provided to illustrate how these tools will be used and what benefits they bring to the industry.

1  Using Analytics Platforms to Continuously Evaluate Buildings and Drive Persistent Savings

Ryan Hoest, P.E., EcoVox, Inc
There’s no shortage of available software applications and tools that can be leveraged to identify savings opportunities in buildings. The challenge is identifying which tool types are appropriate and what data is useful for the variety of needed building assessments that range from simple benchmarking to fault detection/auditing or advanced statistical analysis. This presentation provides an overview of a software environment developed to leverage the relative strengths of some energy analytics, workflow management, and visualization tools to identify savings opportunities, quantify savings impacts, and support an ongoing commissioning process in actual facilities.

2  A Smart Data Center Energy Expert System for Automatic Measurement, Energy Audit and Energy Efficiency Improvement

Wenli Yu, Archimedes Controls Corp
Liangcai Tan, Ph.D., P.E., HDR Architecture Inc
The Smart Data Center Energy Expert System is a continuous monitoring, control and analytics platform developed by the needs of modem data centers for down time prevention powered by latest IoT and cloud technologies. The expert-system approach enables fast and accurate identification of environmental trends along with comprehensive and cost effective energy efficiency recommendations, boosts adoption of energy saving measures and automatic CRAC controls. The all-in-one system significantly simplifies and standardizes savings estimation and verification and effectively sustains and improves the savings over time for medium to large data centers.

3  Using Advanced Energy Management System for Automatic Energy Audit in China

Hui Li, Ph.D., P.E., Shenzhen Secom Tech. Ltd, China
Due to the requirements of national energy policy, more than 10,000 public and commercial buildings in China installed sub-meters in the last eight years. Energy audit and retro-commissioning were also performed on these buildings. EMS platform that can track and perform analysis on data collected from sub-meters and BAS is becoming essential for analyzing system operation, identifying system issues and faults , and uncovering energy cost-saving opportunities. This presentation introduces an advanced EMS platform used for automatic data collection and archiving, data calibration, energy benchmarking, equipment and system operation performance analysis, energy and operation fault alerting and measurement & verification.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 15
Do the Users Follow the Model?

Building Operation and Performance
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Guy Perreault, P.Eng., Evap-Tech MTC inc.
Technical Committee: 9.10 Laboratory Systems
This session presents case studies to provide guidance for developing energy models for laboratory buildings. The presenters demonstrate real life examples of energy savings using demand based ventilation and the implementation of wind responsive VAV exhaust systems in laboratories. Finally, it addresses why the actual energy consumption of laboratories may differ from the original model.

1  Modelling, Measuring and Evaluating Laboratory Energy Efficiency Performance

Gordon Sharp, Aircuity Inc
Demand based control, variable exhaust fan controls, heat recovery, etc. have significant impact on saving energy in labs. Building a holistic model of these systems , when these approaches interact with each other can be a challenge. An energy analysis tool was developed to address these concerns. This presentation discusses this energy analysis tool that measures actual savings of completed projects. Case studies showing the energy savings modeled compared with actual airflow savings and energy performance is presented. Lessons learned is also presented, explaining why some of these lab projects were not initially achieving their energy savings.

2  Wind Response Exhaust Fan Control Case Study

Brad Cochran, P.E., C P P Inc
This presentation discusses actual projects implementing wind responsive VAV exhaust systems for laboratories. It also addresses the steps to ensure a safe operation of the VAV controls.

3  Energy Model vs. Actual Performance Case Study

Kelley Cramm, P.E., Henderson Engineers
This presentation discusses the differences between modeled building energy performance and actual consumption. Limitations of modeling software and engineering assumptions are included. Differences between modeling existing buildings and new buildings is also presented. The discussion includes common areas of difference between models and actual performance.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 16
Heat Exchanger Corrosion: Fundamentals to Application

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Chad Bowers, Ph.D., Ingersoll Rand
Technical Committee: 8.4 Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Transfer Equipment
This session provides a thorough overview and in-depth analysis of the air side corrosion behavior on air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers. This includes fundamental design side considerations for both round tube and microchannel tubes, as well as applied lessons from ongoing research.

1  Corrosion Mechanisms in All Aluminum Microchannel and Round Tube Plate Fin Heat Exchangers

Seifollah Nasrazadani, University of North Texas
This seminar presentation defines Galvanic Corrosion and what causes this form of corrosion. It also offers insight into distinguishing the modes of degradation in All-Aluminum micro channel heat exchangers.

2  Multifunctional Nanostructured Water Repellent and Anti-Corrosion Coatings

Panos Dastkos, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Condensation and corrosion can be major problems when surfaces are exposed to environmental conditions. Because of geometry it may be difficult to drain condensate, leading to increased corrosion or frosting at lower temperatures. Superhydrophobic (SH) materials can minimize anti-condensation and corrosion. SH coatings can be tailored for micro-channel heat exchangers, fin tube coils, and internally enhanced shell-tube heat exchangers. The impact of SH coatings on heat transfer performance needs to be considered along with the overall energy efficiency improvement resulting from SH coatings. SH coatings can help reduce performance degradation from corrosion by 50% and therefore improve the operational efficiency.

3  Aluminum Round Tube Applications and Corrosion Resistance Mechanisms

Vikas Somani, Brazeway
Round tubing is used in non-brazed, mechanically assembled in form of U-Bend hairpins. Aluminum hairpins provide requisite formicary corrosion protection and have the majority market share for indoor application. Outdoor application requires more stringent corrosion protection, smaller diameter tubing and larger coils. This makes applying this tubing in outdoor environment an engineering challenge. Developments in long life 3000 series alloys, hairpin lubrication, processing and coil fabrication may open up a limited outdoor market, and make the indoor market more attractive. Alloy development has focused on refinements/composition that alter failure mode from pitting to general lateral corrosion, increasing tubing’s corrosion performance.

4  Fundamental Alloying, Processing and Field Application Considerations for Aluminum HVAC&R Heat Exchangers

David Ellerbrock, Sapa
After this presentation, attendees will understand and distinguish the three inter-related design factors that influence corrosion durability of an aluminum heat exchanger. They will also be able to apply fundamental learnings to future HEX designs.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 17
Energy Management: A Crucial Component of Operations and Maintenance

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: John Constantinide, Alpha MRC Architects Engineers
Technical Committee: 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
In the overall facility operations and maintenance (O&M) picture, energy management plays an integral role in proper facility management. This role is increasingly valued with a push in the public and private sectors for reduced energy consumption, leading to reduced facility costs and, in the case of equipment replacement, reduced payback periods. Effective energy management in O&M requires calculated and focused strategies with a proper investment of time, funding, and personnel. These strategies and their energy-saving impacts will be discussed by seminar speakers who have worked in institutional settings, providing perspectives from the United States and in an international setting.

1  The OMMP Annual Program and the Impact on Energy Conservation

Terrence Rollins, RHC Global Energy Solutions
This session focuses on “Critical Thinking” and the Principles of the Integrated Design for Energy Efficiency. The Integrated Design Project Team (IDP) early involvement in planning, design, construction, and building operations team members. The goal IDP asset management and energy management program for energy consuming equipment is to operate and maintain the equipment to like new conditions. The benefit of decreased energy use and saving fuel can result in decrease maintenance cost for the owner. The lower operating expenses can be invested back to the owner’s core business.

2  Energy Management in Operations and Maintenance

David Norvell, P.E., University of Central Florida
When considering the entire life cycle of a building, costs incurred during the operations phase have a great impact on the overall success of the project. The presentation covers the necessary components and processes for a successful in-house, energy management program at a tier 1 metropolitan research university. The importance of operations and maintenance staff to the success and sustainment of the program will be addressed as well as the importance of a documented workflow process. The case study shows the effect of policy, procedure, organizational structure, process improvement, and analytics on the overall success of the program.

3  Energy and Resources Conservation through O&M

Mohammad Baig, President of ASHRAE NPC
Energy and resource conservation can only be achieved if building systems are operated and maintained the way they were designed and commissioned. Operations and maintenance (O&M) is usually given the least priority globally, including in Pakistan. What needs to be included in design, construction and commissioning phases in relation to O&M? What is an O&M team and their duties? How should effective O&M can be executed? How can effective O&M enhance the service life of equipment, as well as energy and resources conservation? Lastly, what metrics can be used to note and keep track of a well-executed O&M program?

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 18
Thermally Driven Devices Are Heating Up: Emerging International Field Studies and Standards for Residential Fuel-Fired Sorption Heat Pumps

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Kyle Gluesenkamp, Ph.D., ORNL
Technical Committee: 8.3 Absorption and Heat Operated Machines
As current natural gas heating units approach their efficiency limits, what will be next? Sorption systems (including absorption and adsorption) can provide gas heating efficiencies well above 100% by extracting heat from the ambient. They are rapidly expanding into water and space heating systems, especially in Europe. The IEA Annex 43 has the goal to widen use of fuel driven heat pumps, and in this seminar, member countries report on recent field studies and development of international rating standards that can help sorption technologies accelerate their rapid expansion into residential and commercial space and water heating markets.

1  Practical Experience of Field Testing Residential and Light Commercial Gas Absorption Heat Pumps

Axel Albers, Dipl-Ing., Bosch Thermotechnik GmbH
Two types of gas absorption units have been installed in field tests in Germany. A larger capacity unit (140 kBtu/h or 41 kW heating) with 50-100% modulation was installed with an auxiliary boiler in a school building to replace a 150 kW boiler. In addition, smaller (61 kBtu/h or 18 kW heating) units were installed for residential applications, without auxiliary boilers. The measured savings over the baseline boiler systems have been up to 40%. This seminar describes the system layouts and how the savings were achieved.

2  Field Testing of Residential Gas Absorption Storage Water Heaters

Paul Glanville, P.E., Gas Technology Institute
Several prototype ammonia/water absorption water heating units, aimed at the residential water heating market, have been recently evaluated. Field tests as well as laboratory reliability evaluations were conducted. Energy factors significantly higher than 1 were observed in a variety of installations. Analysis of these results and lessons learned are discussed in this seminar.

3  Existing and Emerging International Standards for Evaluation of Fuel-Fired Sorption Heat Pumps

Ivan Malenkovic, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Proper equipment testing standards give consumers confidence, reduce uncertainty for manufacturers, and enable utilities to offer incentives for more efficient products. Besides these goals, a standard should not be too burdensome to conduct. This seminar describes the unique characteristics of gas heat pumps and how those relate to standards. Attendees will gain a better understanding of how gas heat pumps operate and can be applied.

4  Multi-Laboratory Round-Robin Testing of Commercialized Sorption Heat Pumps for Residential Space Heating

Patrizia Melograno, Ph.D., Politecnico di Milano
For the first time, sorption heat pump units were subjected to round-robin testing at two different laboratories. Testing was conducted according to existing European standard EN12309 and German standard VDI 4650. In order to inform ongoing standards development, the team identified recommendation to address challenges with measurement of low part loads, as well as how to minimize testing burden while achieving a seasonal efficiency rating.

3:00 PM-6:00 PM
Seminar TC
A Better Writer is a Better Engineer: TC 7.3 O&M Management Perspective on Good Communication

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Mina Agarabi, P.E., Agarabi Engineering PLLC
Technical Committee: 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
OPEN SESSION: No badge required; no PDHs awarded; presented during the TC's meeting. Successful engineers require many communication skills. This seminar workshop focuses on the value and importance of good writing skills for both experienced engineers and YEA, the requirement as engineers to communicate technical ideas and data, and how to achieve improved writing. Sample writings will be used to demonstrate writing techniques.

3:15 PM-4:45 PM
Seminar 19
Walking the Walk: Delivering a Truly High Performance Building

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Alyse Falconer, P.E., Interface Engineering
Technical Committee: 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
Sponsor: 7.6 Building Energy Performance
CoSponsor: 7.9 Building Commissioning
The lifecycle of a new construction project can last several years. Initial goals are set by the team with high aspirations but are often deviated from as the process continues. Tracking and monitoring the project’s energy goals through design deliverables, energy analysis and commissioning reports is crucial for adhering to objectives. However, what happens when unforeseen issues occur? Does the team achieve the owner’s aspirations? This presentation reviews achieving client goals while working through obstacles, from design inception through occupied building. Working together as a high performance team, performance goals can be achieved and confirmed through post-occupancy measurement and verification.

1  Architect and Engineer: An Evolving Relationship Required for Synergy within Sustainable Design

Evan Jacob, AIA, Pfau Long Architecture
The relationship between architect and engineer has evolved as sustainable design has gained importance. The design process between the team is less hierarchical and much more collaborative. Beyond the team’s reliance on engineers for technical expertise, they must also have a broader understanding of a project’s goals, as their input has a much greater impact than before. Today, the process of engineer more closely reflects the process of architecture, each relying on the other. Understanding the importance of integrating HVAC design and building envelope strategies into the early stages of the design process creates a synergy within architecture and engineering.

2  HVAC Design Options: Navigating Owners and Architects through HVAC Systems to Provide Client Specific Solutions

Alyse Falconer, P.E., Interface Engineering
Every project and owner is unique. Some buildings are set out with goals to have the greenest building in the world while others are simply trying to provide adequate thermal comfort. There is a fine line between providing an adequate system while encouraging an owner towards an energy efficient design. And when and how do you bring the facilities engineer into the design process? This presentation covers how to present and tailor HVAC system design options to the owner, design team and facilities group, while addressing energy use concerns, architectural aesthetics, acoustical criteria, and operations and maintenance preferences.

3  Commissioning: Why Designers, Owners and Operators Should Care

Michael Flemming, P.E., Interface Engineering
Often the commissioning process is an after-thought that gets addressed when code compliance or LEED requirements are addressed. It is seen as a means to an ends instead of a key component of a high performance project. Through early integration of commissioning into the design process, projects experience reduced energy use, lower operating costs, reduced contractor callbacks, and verification that the systems perform in accordance with the owner’s requirements. Projects can only succeed when designers, energy analysts, contractors, owners and operators all understand the project goals, and commissioning is one of the most effective ways to bring all parties together.

4  Integrating Energy Analysis into Design: How to Ensure Predicted Energy Utilization Index Values Are Achieved

Anna Brannon, P.E., Integral Group
The most important key of true project success is a high performance team that communicates effectively and constantly tracks its goals. The design must be benchmarked throughout each phase of the project, including post occupancy. Working hand in hand with the design team, owner and facilities group allows the energy analyst to predict an Energy Utilization Index value which is reflective of future building conditions. And after a year of occupancy, a carefully thought out measurement and verification process will reveal the team’s successes and shortcomings.

Monday, January 30, 2017

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 20
Fresh Insights on Building Automation: A Seminar by the YEA Group

Building Operation and Performance
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Joseph Kilcoyne, P.E., SC Engineers, Inc.
Technical Committee: 1.4 Control Theory and Application
Sponsor: YEA
CoSponsor: 7.5 Smart Building Systems
With a focus on emerging trends in building automation systems, three Young Engineers in ASHRAE members will highlight where they see the control industry heading. According to many experts, smart, interconnected building technologies are the next major step in the evolution of buildings. With the increase of the prevalence of the “Internet of Things” and the falling costs of sensors and wireless technology, the smart building technology and implementation market has a huge potential. Topics covered include predictive energy modeling for energy dashboards, functional control testing through injection and stimulation, and connected commissioning methods.

1  Emerging Smart Building Automation Technologies and Barriers to Implementation

Chris Perry, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
According to some experts, smart, interconnected building technologies are the next major step in the evolution of buildings. With the increase of the prevalence of the “Internet of Things” and the falling costs of sensors and wireless technology, the smart building technology and implementation market has a huge potential. Yet, changing an industry doesn’t happen overnight. Proponents of smart buildings must still overcome a number of obstacles before smart buildings become ubiquitous, including barriers with safety (cybersecurity), technology (interoperability), and humanity (acceptance).

2  Customizing Energy Dashboard Performance Goals Using Predictive Modeling, Historical Data Analysis and Energy-Conservative Logic

Alex Scambos, Randall Lamb Associates, Inc.
Realizing the economic and environmental benefits of energy-efficient building designs requires attentive and well-informed operation. Providing real-time feedback to occupants and operators about actual energy use is a powerful tool in pursuit of this goal. However, without context, this feedback can be unhelpful or even misleading. Control limits contextualize feedback by establishing reasonable ranges for the reported data that are tailored to a building’s unique characteristics. This presentation is an introduction to two related methods of establishing control limits for building energy consumption using a combination of predictive modeling, historical data analysis, and energy-conservative logic.

3  Successful Functional Testing Methods for Building Automation Systems

Israa Ajam, Sebesta
Commissioning consists of systematically documenting that specified components and systems have been installed and started up properly and then functionally tested to verify that systems are complete and functioning properly upon project completion. Proper functional performance test development plays a big role in the success of commissioning. The intent of this portion of the seminar is to present various means & methods for functional performance testing. Means and methods such as control modification, injection, stimulation and actual event will be discussed in depth.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 21
Low Energy LED Lighting Heat Gain Distribution in Buildings (ASHRAE RP-1681)

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Glenn Friedman, P.E., Taylor Engineering
Technical Committee: 4.1 Load Calculation Data and Procedures
The components of lighting heat gains are a significant contributor to space cooling load in buildings. These components include the fraction of convective and radiative heat gains, as well as the fraction of conditioned space and plenum space heat gains. Relevant data for the LED lighting heat gain is sparse. As the LED technology and application are rapidly growing, the need to identify LED lighting heat gain becomes highly demanded. This seminar summarizes the findings of ASHRAE RP-1681, in which 14 commercially available LED lighting luminaries’ heat gain distributions were determined through systematically designed experiments.

1  Approach, Test Setup and LED Luminaire Selection for Testing LED Lighting Heat Gain Distribution

Ran Liu, Ph.D., China Building Design Consultants
This session introduces the technical approach to determine the conditioned space heat fraction and the radiative heat fraction of the LED lighting fixtures under test. The session describes the configuration of the test chamber, net radiometer, and instrumentation. The criteria of selecting representative LED luminaires for testing are also discussed.

2  Test Results of LED Lighting Heat Gain Distribution and Comparison to Conventional Lighting

Xiaohui Zhou, Ph.D., P.E., Iowa Energy Center
The test results of fourteen LED lighting luminaires are analyzed in this session, including the heat gain fractions obtained from base case and the impact of different test conditions. The session also compares the heat gain distribution between LED lighting fixtures and conventional lighting fixtures.

3  Field Application of LED Lighting Heat Gain Distribution Data

Steven Bruning, P.E., Newcomb & Boyd
Field application of LED lighting heat gain distribution data. Widespread application of LED lighting is having a significant impact on HVAC systems design. This presentation compares LED lighting load densities for typical office spaces with vs more traditional lighting designs. Data gathered as part of recent research will be used to calculate comparative impact on cooling loads and resulting air handler and chiller loads.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 22
The Past Present and Future of Combined Heat and Power Systems in Mission Critical Facilities

Mission Critical Design and Operation
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: James Freihaut, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University
Technical Committee: 1.10 Cogeneration Systems
CoSponsor: 6.2 District Energy
This session describes combined heat and power as a robust, efficient, economical and clean solution for critical infrastructure, microgrids and resiliency.

1  U.S. Department of Energy CHP for Resiliency Accelerator Progress Report

Richard Sweetser, Exergy Partners Corp.
The US Department of Energy launched the Combined Heat and Power for Resiliency Accelerator on May 9, 2016. This collaborative effort with states, communities, utilities and other stakeholders is examining the perceptions of CHP among resiliency planners, identified gaps in current technologies or information relative to resilience needs and is developing plans for communities to capitalize on CHP’s strengths as a reliable, high efficiency, lower emissions electricity and heating source for critical infrastructure. This presentation reports on the results of the initial work and provides insight into how CHP will play in future resiliency plans throughout the nation.

2  Combined Heat and Power: A Robust, Efficient, Economical and Clean Solution for Critical Infrastructure, Microgrids and Resiliency

Bruce Hedman, Dr.Ing., Entropy LLC
Bruce A. Hedman, has over 30 years of experience in energy technology research, development and commercialization, and is a recognized authority on combined heat and power (CHP) and distributed generation technologies, markets and policies. He is currently Managing Director of Entropy Research, providing consulting services on the technical, policy and market aspects of distributed generation and industrial energy efficiency to a variety of public and private clients, including U.S. DOE’s CHP deployment program. 

3  Resilient CHP Design for Mission Critical Facilities while Minimizing the Impact on Energy and Water Usage

Gearoid Foley, Integrated CHP Systems Corp.
This presentation examines the design of resilient microgrids at hospitals that can support significantly more than the legally mandated emergency circuits and restore the full facility to near normal functionality. The presentation reviews the engineering issues to be considered when retrofitting resilient CHP into an existing facility as well as the environmental water use and overall economics of adding resilience to CHP at critical facilities such as hospitals and data centers.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 23
The Road to Zero Energy Buildings Goes Through Energy Indices: What’s Fair and How Do We Get There?

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Michael Deru, Ph.D., NREL
Technical Committee: 2.8 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability
CoSponsor: 7.6 Building Energy Performance
Measuring progress toward achieving net zero energy buildings can be difficult. Performance metrics such as energy use index and energy rating index will provide misleading information if they are insensitive to the impact of parameters such as size, process loads, and occupant behavior. This seminar highlights challenges facing popular performance metrics targeted toward net zero buildings. Options for addressing some of these challenges will be described, including lessons learned from an extensive evaluation of airport terminals, and technical approaches such as O&M Index and Index Adjustment Factors to address disparities in ratings caused by geometry and operating assumptions.

1  An O&M Index Can Help Address EUI Limitations

David Goldstein, Natural Resources Defense Council
Energy performance indices are used around the world to evaluate and monitor residential and commercial building energy performance during design, construction, renovation, and operation. Building energy performance is sensitive to the engineered system, O&M practices, and occupant needs, each of which are largely independent factors requiring more than one index to describe and manage the building’s energy performance. This presentation analyzes the merits and weaknesses of common indices and introduces the O&M Index, which is the ratio of the energy consumption at the meter to the simulated energy performance, calibrated for the actual operating conditions of the building.

2  Developing EUI Adjustment Factors for Benchmarking Airport Terminal Buildings

Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
A recent study of Airport Terminal Buildings by the Airport Cooperative Research Program revealed that traditional Energy Use Indices (EUIs) do not fully explain the differences in the energy use characteristics of Airport Terminal Buildings (ATBs). To resolve this issue new indices were developed and demonstrated that more accurately account for the special systems in ATBs. This presentation presents the findings of this effort, including the new Energy Use (EU) indicators and preliminary results of the application of the ATB EUs to selected airports in the U.S.

3  ERI Adjustments for Standard 90.2 and Other Residential Applications

Philip Fairey, Florida Solar Energy Center
Experience with the Energy Rating Index (ERI) score as a building energy performance metric indicates that home geometry and operating assumptions play a significant role in resulting scores. All other things equal, as home size increases it becomes easier to achieve lower scores. The number of bedrooms and number of stories also impact scores. This presentation highlights the magnitude of the disparities caused by each of these factors in high performance zero energy ready homes. It also provides details on a set of Index Adjustment Factors that account for these impacts and significantly reduce disparities in the revised ERI calculation.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 24
When Buildings Get Wet....What Does That Mean?

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Lan Chi Nguyen Weekes, P.Eng., InAIR Environmental Ltd
Technical Committee: 1.12 Moisture Management in Buildings
This session's theme is moisture, humidity, dampness and what are the differences between them all? The session focuses on the fundamental concepts of moisture management in buildings, discusses common moisture problems and fixes and attempts to describe dampness as it applies to real world situations.

1  New Fundamentals Chapter: Moisture and Buildings - What about Vapor Sources?

Hugo Hens, Ph.D., University of Leuven (KU Leuven)
Buildings are for people but habiting means vapor release. The new chapter introduced by ASHRAE Technical Committee 1.12 looks to how large that release is in residential buildings, schools and natatoriums. It advances a method commonly used to evaluate the importance, offers examples of how the method is used and summarizes the consequences the unavoidable vapor release may have if the impact is not moderated.

2  New Chapter 62 of Applications Volume: Moisture Management from the School of Hard Knocks

Lew Harriman, Mason-Grant Consulting

Sooner or later, every building owner and HVAC designer comes up against a humidity or moisture problem that simply won’t go away. The members of ASHRAE Technical Committee 1.12 have gathered their experiences of diagnosing and fixing several of the most common moisture problems and summarized these in Chapter 62 of the 2015 ASHRAE Handbook: Applications. This presentation summarizes the hard-knock experiences of your colleagues. The information is practical, it’s simple and it’s real.

3  New ASHRAE Guidance for Moisture Management in Buildings

Carl Grimes, HHS, CIEC, Hayward Healthy Home

Epidemiological investigators have shown clear and consistent associations between occupancy of damp indoor spaces and increased probability of important adverse health effects. A Multidisciplinary Task Group (MTG) developed a simple and recognizable description of when building dampness is sufficient to increase the probability of negative health effects. It also suggests practical tools and techniques utilizing four quantitative metrics that can alert managers to the risk of an indoor space becoming “damp” enough to affect health in the future.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 25
Wire-to-Air Fan Power Performance and Energy Consumption

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Asesh Raychaudhuri, P.E., U S Dept of Veterans Affairs
Technical Committee: 5.1 Fans
CoSponsor: 5.9 Enclosed Vehicular Facilities
Estimating wire-to-air fan power performance and energy consumption requires inclusion of a number of variables and few other consideration. Power performance varies depending on whether the fan is an independent equipment or connected to other accessories. This seminar focuses on describing and explaining the steps and a standardized method to follow.

1  Standardizing Fan System Energy Calculation

Michael Brendel, Ph.D., Lau Industries
Helmuth Glatt, P.E., Lau Industries
Fan systems can be configured with a wide variety of options. The number of combinations and the lack of scaling laws makes testing and rating of fan system energy performance an impractical task. While estimates can be made using component peak efficiencies, these calculations are often applied inconsistently or without part load performance. Method to standardize the calculations under general operating conditions is presented which applies to fan systems containing any combination of regulated poly-phase induction motors, v-belt transmissions, and pulse-width modulated variable frequency drives. This presentation provides detailed review of the underlying assumptions, the calculation procedure, and examples of those calculations. 

2  Measurement of Fan Component Efficiency

Tim Mathson, Greenheck Fan Corporation
Wire-to-air fan efficiency depends on individual component efficiencies of the fan, motor, V-belt drive, and VFD. The efficiency of each of these components can be evaluated at full rated load as well as at part loads encountered in VAV systems. Tests were conducted and results will be presented for these components including multiple sizes at various loads. These component efficiencies are also compared with the measured overall fan efficiency.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 26
Small Stuff, Big Problems: Origins and Exposures to Nanoparticles

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Lan Chi Nguyen Weekes, P.Eng., InAIR Environmental Ltd
Sponsor: EHC
Nanomaterials development and application are viewed as an emerging discipline but is that new? Concerns have been raised about exposure to nanomaterials as it presents a unique set of exposure pathways with potentially new benefits and risks. This seminar explores the sources of nanomaterials indoors, their impact on indoor air quality and their associated risks.

1  Airborne Nanoparticles in Residential Environments

Andrew Persily, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
There has been much recent attention, and in some cases concern, about airborne exposure to nanoparticles (generally meaning aerodynamic diameters less than 100 µm) associated with engineered nanomaterials. While there are valid questions about these potentials exposures, it is important to understand that so-called incidental nanoparticles are common in outdoor air and are also released from many normal residential activities, e.g. cooking. This presentation explains how airborne nanoparticles are measured, summarize measurements of incidental nanoparticles in a residential environment, and discusses some examples of how engineered nanomaterials in residential environments could be a source of exposure.

2  Exposure Pathways for Nanomaterials from the Indoor Environment

Patricia Fritz, New York State Department of Health
Nanomaterial development and application are viewed as an emerging discipline, but exposure to, and work with materials in the nanoscale has been occurring for centuries. Engineered nanomaterials are heralded for their important, unique characteristics not exhibited by macroscale materials of the same composition. Exposure to nanomaterials presents a unique set of exposure pathways with potentially new benefits and risks. Since the early research with ultrafine particles, new commercial and residential uses of a wide range of nanomaterials are challenging our understanding of the impact of these materials on human health and the environment throughout their lifecycle.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 27
Specifying IoT, Cyber Security and Advanced BAS Sequences and Applications: The Future of Guideline 13

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Kristopher L Kinney, KECG
Technical Committee: 1.4 Control Theory and Application
CoSponsor: 1.5 Computer Applications
Building automation systems are evolving and specifications need to adapt for advances in fault diagnostics, advanced control sequences, smart grid, and methods how to secure them. This session presents the panel’s views on how specifying engineers can improve, secure and enhance new and existing control systems. It highlights efforts of ASHRAE Guideline 13 to stay relevant, include specification language and guidance and provide future specifiers background needed to set the roles and responsibilities without being an expert in those advanced fields. This should be an informative discussion ending with questions to tie it together.

1  Advanced Control Sequences

Mark Hydeman, P.E., Consultant
This presentation examines the scope of Guideline 36 and the research agenda that will fuel its content over the near term. He will also address the integration of Guidline 36 with Guideline 13..

2  Fault Detection and Diagnostics

Grant Wichenko, P.Eng., Appin Associates
Discuss aspects of Fault Detection and Diagnostics and how SGPC 13 is moving towards providing guidance and references for the specifier to adopt the technology in their automation projects.

3  Cyber Security

Ron Bernstein, RBCG, LLC
Discuss views on how buildings can, should, and will be more secure and where the convergence of access and risk align for Cyber Security and how SGPC 13 is moving towards providing guidance and references for the specifier to adopt the technologies in their automation projects.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 28
When Good Valve Sizing Goes Bad

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Robert C. Walker, Belimo Aircontrols Usa
Technical Committee: 6.1 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems
CoSponsor: 1.4 Control Theory and Application
This seminar presents an overview of hydronic control valve sizing with special emphasis on sizing issues which can affect the performance of the control valves. Actual examples of incorrect valve sizing will be shown with an explanation of the problems caused and the solutions required to correct the problems.

1  Basics of Hydronic Control Valve Sizing

Tricia Bruenn, Belimo Aircontrols USA
This session discusses the correct method of sizing hydronic control valves. Included will be a discussion of valve specification terminology, formulas for valve sizing, pipe geometry factors, and valve authority.

2  Hydronic Valve Sizing: Behind the Curtain

James Del Monaco, P.E., P2S Engineering
This session presents hydraulic modeling and case studies providing examples of the effects of incorrect control valve sizing that have negatively impacted the hydronic system as well as design strategies that impact system performance and control valve operation.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 29
Zero Net-Energy Buildings: Modeled Predictions and Outcomes

Building Operation and Performance
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Charles Eley, P.E., Eley Consulting
ASHRAE and many other societies and governmental organizations have adopted the Architecture 2030 challenge which calls for new buildings to be zero net-energy (ZNE) by the year 2030. This seminar addresses the technical feasibility of meeting this challenge based on recent analysis, including ASHRAE research on the maximum technical potential for achieving low energy buildings (RP-1651), and the on-site renewable energy production potential for typical climates. Data from measured energy performance (utility bills) of recently constructed ZNE buildings will then be compared to the theoretical targets, and the areas of agreement as well as the gaps will be explored.

1  ZNE Feasibility and Issues By Building Type and Climate

Charles Eley, P.E., Eley Consulting
This presentation addresses the technical feasibility of meeting the Architecture 2030 challenge based on recent analysis, including ASHRAE research on the maximum technical potential for achieving low energy buildings (RP-1651), and the on-site renewable energy production potential for typical climates. ASHRAE and many other societies and governmental organizations have adopted the Architecture 2030 challenge which calls for new buildings to be zero net-energy (ZNE) by the year 2030. This seminar addresses the technical feasibility of meeting this challenge based on

2  Comparing Outcomes to Modeling Results

Mark Frankel, AIA, New Buildings Institute
This presentation compares data from measured energy performance (utility bills) of recently constructed ZNE buildings to the targets determined through modeling. Areas of agreement as well as the gaps will be explored.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Seminar 30
Electronic Project and Document Management: An Introduction and ASHRAE’s System

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: James Arnold, P.E., Haslett Heating and Cooling
Technical Committee: 1.7 Business, Management & General Legal Education
Sponsor: Electronic Communications Committee
Electronic project management systems and collaborative editing tools are collaborative programs for business and design professionals. These systems can include document management and retention, project scheduling and communication. The communications can include proposals, budgets, submittals, information requests, timelines, submittals and more. With any new system, training and standardizing procedures for efficiency and sustained usage are important. Additionally, this session covers the ASHRAE selected project management system Basecamp. Including the goals of using Basecamp, where ASHRAE is currently, and what the challenges were. Lastly, a demonstration of the ASHRAE Authoring Portal, a collaborative editing tool is shown, including sample projects.

1  Basecamp Fundamentals

Cynthia Callaway, P2S Engineering Inc
This presentation covers the background of the selection of Basecamp. What were the problems and proposed solutions for this system? Additionally, the presentation demonstrates the operation of Basecamp.

2  ASHRAE Authoring Portal

Mark Owen, ASHRAE
This presentation explains the operation of the ASHRAE Authoring portal and demonstrates the usage. Additionally, the speaker covers ASHRAE's legal and property concerns.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Seminar 31
Ref Cooling Water-Saturation Indices: Understanding the Water Balance When Designing and Operating a HVAC System

Water-Energy Nexus
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Dan B. Weimar, Chem-Aqua, Inc
Technical Committee: 3.6 Water Treatment
Specifying the water usage ratio for HVAC equipment is an increasing goal in high performance building designs. This session introduces the concept of saturation indices for heat transfer systems, and demonstrate the tools available for predicting water consumption, water treatment control limits and chemical treatment directives. We will further delve into how the indices can be utilized to develop a successful water treatment program which balance water consumption and equipment life. This seminar provides the engineer, owner and operator with the tools and understanding necessary, for an efficient HVAC system, regardless of local makeup water quality.

1  Should Your Water be Used As Delivered? Softened? Blended Back? RO? or What? If Blended Back, How Much?

Jeff Boldt, P.E., KJWW Engineering Consultants
Engineers often work on projects in areas where they have not worked before. When that happens, how do we decide whether the incoming water should be used as-is or treated for domestic use? Should it be softened? Should only hot water be softened? Should soft and raw water be blended? If so, in what ration? Is RO needed for some applications? This presentation introduces a spreadsheet that may become an ASHRAE tool offering that will help engineers to make those decisions based on something more than what the building next door does.

2  How Water Treatment Programs Utilize Saturation Indices to Reduce Water Consumption and Protect System Equipment: A Case Study

Joshua Ince, P.Eng., Eldon Water Inc
Specifying the water usage ratio for HVAC equipment is an increasing goal in high performance building designs. This session introduces the concept of saturation indices for heat transfer systems, and demonstrate the tools available for predicting water consumption, water treatment control limits and chemical treatment directives. Presenters explore how the indices can be utilized to develop a successful water treatment program which balance water consumption and equipment life. This seminar provides the engineer, owner and operator with the tools and understanding necessary, for an efficient HVAC system, regardless of local makeup water quality 

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Seminar 32
What Fire and Safety Engineers Have Learned Since the MGM Grand Fire in Las Vegas and What Are Present Day Fire and Life Safety Codes and Applications

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Peter Simmonds, Ph.D., Buildings and Systems Analytics
Technical Committee: 9.12 Tall Buildings
The MGM Grand Fire in 1980 created a new thought process and applications on how fire and life safety systems in buildings are addressed. This session provides a description of the 1980 fire and lessons learned as well as an overview of present day fire and life safety codes, especially applications for tall, supertall and Mega-tall buildings.

1  The MGM Grand Fire and What Was Learned

John Klote, P.E., John Klote Fire and Smoke Consulting
On November 21, 1980, one of the worst fire tragedies in US history happened at the MGM Grand Hotel on the famous Las Vegas “strip.” This fire killed 87 people, and approximately 70% of the fatalities were on the upper floors due to smoke inhalation. This paper discusses the fire including what made this tragedy happen. After this fire, many fire safety improvements have been made including advances in smoke control that would have significantly reduced the death toll.

2  What Are the Latest Fire and Life Safety Codes and Regulations for Buildings, Especially Tall, Supertall and Mega-tall Buildings?

Matt Davy, P.E., Buildings and Systems Analytics
Fire and life safety is probably the most important code compliant factors in modern building design. This presentation reviews the present code regulations and applications and in particular fire and life safety code issues for tall, supertall and megatall building systems.

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 33
Considerations in Hydronic Heating System Design and Performance

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Jennifer E. Leach, P.E., Harsco Industrial Patterson-Kelley
To familiarize the audience on the critical considerations involved in successful design and performance of hydronic heating systems, specifically incorporating condensing boiler technology, and the effects of proper vs. improper venting and the necessity of water treatment in multi-metal systems.

1  Considerations in Hydronic Heating Systems Design

Lucas Wonnell, Harsco Industrial Patterson-Kelley
Vapor and combustion by-products combine to create highly acidic condensate. This restricts the types of metal used in condensing appliances for hydronic heating. Prior practice was to use building location, lighting design and other factors and 20°F ΔT calculations for designing hydronic heating systems. This led to systems designed for worst case scenarios, resulting in overcapacity and wasted energy. With the emphasis on Green design, systems should and can be designed to building load. New technology in controls, segmented systems and lead lag capability allow systems to only use the energy needed, to provide the appropriate amount of heat.

2  "Green" Water Treatment in a Multi-Metal System

Dave Ritz, TGWT
The more industrial boilers are used, the more potential for corrosion exists, resulting in shortened appliance life. An extremely effective method for reducing corrosion is water treatment. This presentation covers the typical metals found in boiler systems, system operation, corrosion causes and effects, focusing on the effects of corrosion on hydronic heating systems. Systems with and without water treatment through conventional and green corrosion inhibitors are examined along with options for maintaining system efficiency.

3  Special Gas Venting Systems Proper System Design for Category IV Appliances

Michael L. Mommsen, Schebler Chimney Systems
This presentation covers venting requirements for high efficiency hydronic heating systems, including venting basics as well as special gas venting systems for Category II, III & IV. Appliance manufacturer’s requirements and proper system design will be discussed along with Code Compliance with National Fuel Gas Code and design Criteria for NFGC Compliance. Proper system design is examined with pressure drop and draft calculations as well as the results of inadequate draft and over draft control. Finally, proper application of design is reviewed as it pertains to high efficiency, condensing hydronic heating systems.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 34
Delivering Real Buildings That Meet High Performance Design Ambition

Building Operation and Performance
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Tim Dwyer, CEng, UCL Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering (IEDE)
Sponsor: CIBSE ASHRAE Liaison Committee
CoSponsor: 2.8 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability
When buildings are designed the predicted energy performance is often over optimistic and, in many cases, owners and occupants suffer from excessive operational costs with unsustainable buildings. This seminar considers how this performance gap can be practically removed by applying methods that more properly understand the reality of the operating building; the sensible application of data rich building modelling software for lifelong performance and future refurbishment; by unravelling end-user expectation to inform the design and construction of a world-beating basketball arena and, finally, by connecting design with performance. Real projects are used to illustrate the explanations.

1  Towards Robust Building Design: A Systematic Approach to Mitigate Design Risk

Hywel Davies, CIBSE
Bruno Lee, Ph.D., Concordia University
Modern buildings designed for certification under green building rating systems are commonly rated high based on their predicted energy performance. In many cases, their actual performance deviates from the prediction. The discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the assumptions made in the building design and the actual operating conditions. It is important to identify robust designs that perform consistently even under varying conditions. This presentation proposes a design approach that incorporates risk assessment for multiple design aspects into an energy performance evaluation workflow. The approach will help mitigate design bias in conventional design approaches.

2  The Role of Building Information Modelling Data for Design and Post Design Purposes

Brian J. Dargan, CEng, BuroHappold Engineering
This seminar considers the Glorya Kaufman International Dance Center at the University of Southern California LA project that was handed over in summer 2016. Working with the demanding, yet knowledgeable, technical facilities team the fully connected MEP BIM systems model was developed employing equipment manufacturers' BIM components with data rich component information. As well as delivering design detail the BIM provided record drawings with commissioning data and drastically reduced the RFIs compared the traditional design flow. The BIM model will be maintained by the on-site facilities team and updated to manage maintenance and to inform future refurbishment work.

3  Reinventing the Professional Sports Arena

Alastair MacGregor, CEng, AECOM
This presentation sets out a methodology that resets the traditional brute force approach applied in North American venue HVAC design and develops a performance based solution focusing on the wellness and comfort of the attending fans, the venue flexibility and the environmental footprint. This has been applied to the home of the Sacramento Kings professional basketball team that opened for the 2017 NBA season and aims to be the world's most sustainable arena providing fans with the most comfortable and well connected environment. The novel 'fan oriented' design process will be discussed that utilized advanced simulation and building prototyping techniques.

4  Design and Assessment Procedures to Produce Well-Performing Buildings

John W. Field, CEng, Native-Hue Energy Management
Assessment procedures, schemes and initiatives will be discussed which result in buildings which perform well in practice, and perform as modelled. The concept of design, and modelling for performance is explored along with schemes and processes which do or do not include these features. The characteristics of schemes which have been effective in this way are identified along with a relevant technical aspect - modelling - and a procedural aspect - the nature of the performance prediction or guarantee. Examples of projects are used to illustrate features, and current developments described along with suggestions for further development.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 35
Energy Efficiency Assessment in Industrial Facilities: Case Studies and Lessons

Energy Efficient Industrial Buildings
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Zheng O`Neill, Ph.D., P.E., The University of Alabama
Technical Committee: 7.5 Smart Building Systems
The U.S. DOE sponsors 24 industrial assessment centers (IAC). These centers conduct energy audit for small and medium-sized manufacturers to identify site-specific opportunities to improve productivity, reduce waste and save energy through immediate changes in manufacturing processes and equipment and energy systems. This seminar covers an overview of IACs and a typical industrial energy efficiency assessment process. Results of data-mining the recommendations made in over 17,000 assessments will be presented. The basic elements of an industrial control system will be discussed with examples of energy efficiency projects. This seminar also covers a framework for achieving energy and material sustainability.

1  Identification and Trends of Most Frequent Savings Opportunities Found and Implemented in Energy Audits of Manufacturing Facilities

Donald Colliver, Ph.D., P.E., University of Kentucky
The Industrial Assessment Centers have existed for 42 years with an objective of teaching students how to assess energy in manufacturing facilities while providing in-field training by doing assessments. A database exists of the recommendations resulting from these assessments and their consequently implementation. This presentation gives an overview of the IACs and the results of data-mining the recommendations made in over 17,000 assessments. Results are presented for the fraction of total energy costs in gas and electricity use and demand; the most common recommendations grouped by industry NIACS classifications, the most common implemented recommendations; and typical payback periods.

2  Leveraging Control Systems for Energy Savings in Industrial Facilities

Bryan Rasmussen, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
This presentation highlights the role of control systems in reducing energy use in industrial facilities. The basic elements of an industrial control system are discussed and examples of energy efficiency projects related to each element are given, accompanied by statistics drawn from reported implemented projects by industry. Some selected industrial case studies reaffirm the growing potential of control systems to improve product quality, while reducing energy usage and production costs.

3  A Guide to Environmentally Sustainable Manufacturing

J. Kelly Kissock, Ph.D., P.E., University of Dayton
This seminar presents a framework for achieving energy and material sustainability. It describes a methodology to calculate the necessary rates of improvement to achieve net-zero carbon and net-zero waste manufacturing. The speaker describes methodologies to achieve energy and material sustainability based principles of energy and material efficiency applied across to energy systems and material flows. The presentation shows how the savings from energy and material efficiency can find the transition to and maintenance of sustainable manufacturing.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 36
Modeling and Control of the Personal Micro-Environment

Building Operation and Performance
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: H. Ezzat Khalifa, Ph.D., Syracuse University
Technical Committee: 4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
Significant HVAC energy savings and improvement in IEQ can be achieved if the micro environment around the occupant is controlled rather than the whole room, zone or building. This is enabled by localized personal environmental control systems (PECS). To design and optimize such systems, a detailed understanding of the interactions between PECS and the occupant's micro environment is necessary. These interactions influence the comfort, IEQ and energy savings achievable by PECS. The seminar presents advances in the modeling and control of the personal micro-environment, and to illustrate how these can influence the design of PECS.

1  Personal Environment Conditioning with Minimum Exergy Loss

Shinsuke Kato, Dr.Ing., University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science
Owing to the development of radiant heating/cooling systems and personal ventilation, a new trend has arisen where heat is dissipated to several independent areas, providing custom heat loads; this allows the possibility of creating a zero heating/cooling load environment, i.e., it allows us to deal with the heat load from each heat source before the heat diffuses into the space. This solution enables us to utilize lower level heat sources such as chilled water at high temperatures and heat at a low temperature. It also ensures more uniform temperature distribution and a more comfortable Personal Microenvironment with improved energy efficiency.

2  Delivering Efficient Local Cooling/Heating Using a Micro Environmental Control System (µX)

Meng Kong, Syracuse University
Significant HVAC energy savings can be achieved by widening the thermostat setpoint range and providing local thermal management to restore occupant comfort. This is achieved through the use of an efficient 50-60 W personal environmental control system designed for the thermal management of the personal microenvironment. Specifically, we analyze the performance of a micro environmental control system that increases occupant’s sensible heat loss in a room maintained at 79F in the summer, and reduces occupant’s heat loss in a room maintained at 66F in the winter. CFD is employed to assess the system performance under different operating conditions.

3  Control of the Personal Micro-Environment

Arsen Melikov, Ph.D., Technical University of Denmark
The characteristics of the personal micro-environment, consisting of the thermal plume, clothing, gap between skin and clothing, and respiration, will be defined. The importance of free convection around the body and its interaction with external flows, clothing and the resulting heat- and mass transfer for thermal comfort and inhaled air quality will be outlined. The benefit arising from measurement and control of the micro-environment, in terms of sensing body physiological signals, improving people’s thermal comfort and inhaled air quality, reduction of exposure to airborne infectious agents and energy saving will be demonstrated by several methods that are applicable in practice.

4  The Role of Thermal Plume in Person-to-Person Contaminant Cross-Transmission

Xudong Yang, Ph.D., Tsinghua University
In this seminar, the speaker gives a brief introduction of the human thermal plume dominated zone (HTPDZ) around the human body created by the human thermal plume. He then addresses the negative and positive role of the HTPDZ on the contaminant cross transmission between person to person. He will also use examples to explain how the HTPDZ affects the contaminant cross transmission under different conditions, contaminant cross transmission in vertical unidirectional ventilated protective isolation environment and aircraft cabin environment.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 37
HVAC Maintenance: Using Field Test Data to Benchmark and Improve System Performance

Building Operation and Performance
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Robyn Ellis, City of Hamilton - Public Works
Technical Committee: 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
The typical HVAC system operates 40% below specified capacity and efficiency once it is installed in a building. During routine maintenance visits, changes in the performance of an HVAC system can be diagnosed in less than seven minutes by recording and comparing seven simple airside field measurements. This test method compares benchmarked data to pinpoint the causes of deterioration in system airflow, economizer performance and duct system functionality and enables detection and surgical correction of the uncovered and often invisible system defects.

1  Performance Perspective

Rob Falke, National Comfort Institute
Falke – Performance Approach

While most maintenance agreements include a checklist that insinuates acceptable performance, little evidence is provided that verifies how well the installed system is functioning. Emerging technology offers a scoring method that includes key performance indicators that can be field measured during each maintenance visit. Any change in this data can pinpoint changes in the performance of the system and allow for immediate surgical repairs to the system

2  Utilities Perspective

Mel Johnson, DEO Consulting
Maintenance programs with no requirement to collect measured performance data run great risk to customer satisfaction and achieving utility savings goals. It has become clear that even the most well maintained systems are often not efficient at all. This is due to past maintenance programs only focusing on the equipment on the roof versus the system as a whole. Adding technologies to maintenance programs has proven to produce fewer saving than anticipated because existing undetected system degradation prohibited the technology to function as designed, reducing savings throughout the life of the system.

3  Engineering Perspective

Ben Lipscomb, P.E., NCI
By documenting several key metrics at the time of commissioning or retro-commissioning, the performance of a system can be benchmarked. The benchmarks can then be used for a variety of purposes including comparison to manufacturer data, tracking performance degradation over time, and diagnostics. Creating and affixing a label to the equipment with commissioning data and space for ongoing data recording provides a record that is accessible to any personnel who may service the unit. Details of the metrics and proposed commissioning label are provided.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 38
The Impact of Uncertainty and Validation Quality on CFD Results

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Reza Ghias, Ph.D., Southland Industries
Technical Committee: 4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
CFD is a powerful and efficient tool that provides scientific analysis and images to enhance the design. It is a practical and cost effective method to investigate different design alternatives especially in large industrial and commercial buildings. However, the CFD results should meet some level of accuracy to be used in design process. Some factors like the type of the CFD model, boundary condition set up, mesh dependency, and convergence criteria affect the uncertainty and accuracy. The speakers go through several different industrial applications to show the work flow and importance of uncertainty and validation quality in HVAC industry.

1  Uncertainty Qualification and Validation of a CFD Simulation of Surface Condensation

Duncan Phyfe, ARL
Computational modeling in ASHRAE applications requires a level of confidence in the results. This presentation looks at a Verification and Validation of a surface condensation CFD model. The V&V was comprised of a comprehensive procedure for minimizing errors and comparing simulations to a benchmark experiment. The analysis is an assessment of the numerical uncertainty derived from a grid convergence study, an input analysis, a report of experimental uncertainty, and source of unqualified modeling. The total validation uncertainty is calculated for three measured parameters. Simulation results were found to match experimental data within the uncertainty of the validation.

2  CFD Modeling Accuracy: Comparative Study of Airflow Around a Thermal Manikin

John Zhai, Ph.D., University of Colorado
The difficulty and cost associated with detailed measurements of various parameters at a variety of points in a room make CFD a good alternative if CFD results can be believed. This series of simulations modeled a simple case of a thermal manikin in a room with mixing ventilation. The results of these simulations were then compared to existing experiments. Simulations were conducted using different CFD programs, grids, turbulence models, manikin models, and by different users. The study provides insights on what is the current CFD modeling accuracy that one can achieve, believe, and will need for practice.

3  Impact of Grid on CFD Prediction for Industry Applications

Ran Duan, Beijing Tsinghua Tongheng Urban Planning & Design Institute
The CFD is an effective method for investigating air distribution and thermal conditions in large industrial buildings. CFD computing cost is a major concern for industrial simulation, in which CFD grid number plays a dominant role. The mesh type and size are critical on determining the cost of computation and the accuracy of the numerical results. The study uses several different industrial applications to analyze the influence of grid on CFD prediction. The research provides some guidelines on how to control the grid quality to obtain a reasonable accuracy while shorten the computing time for industrial applications

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 39
Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants and Their Applications: Part 1

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: J. Steven Brown, Ph.D., P.E., The Catholic University of America
Sponsor: Journal Policy Committee with Co-sponsors TC 1.3, TC 3.1, and TC 8.4
The seminar addresses low-GWP alternative refrigerants and their applications. As regulations and legislation become increasingly more widespread and restrictive, the HVAC&R industry will need to identify viable alternatives for existing refrigerant solutions. This environmentally-driven change is different than past ones since additional constraints are being placed on refrigerants in essence reducing the number of viable single-component solutions. The seminar highlights five papers appearing in ASHRAE’s Science and Technology for the Built Environment November 2016 edition (one dedicated specifically to low-GWP refrigerants.) The presentations focus on low-GWP halocarbon refrigerants containing unsaturated carbon bonds during boiling heat transfer and in system applications.

1  Oil Retention of Lower GWP Refrigerants and Lubricant Mixtures and Its Effect on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Type Air Conditioning Evaporators

Lorenzo Cremaschi, Ph.D., Auburn University
This talk focuses on the lubricant retention characteristics of lower global warming potential (LGWP) refrigerants R32, R1234yf, and R454B. The speaker highlights similarities and differences of the oil retention characteristics between refrigerant R410A and the LGWP refrigerants in two types of microchannel evaporators used in air conditioning systems for residential applications. The oil in circulation with the refrigerants penalized the evaporators’ heat transfer capacity and increased the refrigerant-side pressure drop. For the LGWP refrigerants, the penalization of the heat transfer capacity was lesser than that observed for the refrigerant R410A at similar operating conditions.

2  Miscibility of POE and PVE Oils with Low-GWP Refrigerant R-1234ze(E)

Man-Hoe Kim, Ph.D., Kyungpook National University
The miscibility of POE68 and PVE68 oils with R-1234ze(E) has been investigated for the temperature and oil mass fraction ranging of –35~80 °C and 0~70 wt%, respectively. Mixture saturation vapor pressures are also measured and are shown to decrease with increase in mass fraction of the oil. The miscibility-test results indicate that the POE68 and PVE68 oils are completely miscible at mass fractions of the oil below 20% and 10%, respectively, for the entire temperature. Refrigerant-oil phase separations are observed for certain mass fraction of the oil and temperature ranges, indicating that the refrigerant-oils are not miscible.

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 40
Addressing Information Incompatibilities in Building Performance Monitoring

Building Operation and Performance
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Michael Bobker, CUNY Institute for Urban Systems
Technical Committee: 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
CoSponsor: 1.5 Computer Applications
This session examines challenges in coordinating data extracted from building automation systems with predictions from building energy models. With BEM increasingly informing design decisions, comparison to post-construction performance at the system level becomes key to troubleshooting and tuning. Discrepancies often first noted in whole-building energy use must be traced back to system level sources. Such comparison between BAS and BEM data is hindered by inconsistencies in data organization, naming, grouping and parameters. This issue is examined as a use-case for ASHRAE Guideline 20-2010, Documenting HVAC&R Work Processes and Data Exchange Requirements.

1  Real-Time Energy Simulation for Whole Building Performance Monitoring

Zheng O`Neill, Ph.D., P.E., University of Alabama, Dept of Mechanical Engineering
A model-based real-time whole building energy monitoring and diagnostics is presented. The proposed system continuously acquires performance measurements of HVAC, lighting and plug load usage from the Building Energy Management System (BEMS) and compares these measurements in real-time to a calibrated reference EnergyPlus model. The structure of categories for extracted data and model outputs is described, along with discussion of adjustments necessary to EnergyPlus reporting and set up of BEMS trending. A proof of concept demonstration is presented.

2  BEM-BAS Data Exchange

Robert Hitchcock, Ph.D., Hitchcock Consulting
Model-based performance monitoring requires comparison of data generated from two distinct kinds of system, the Building Energy Model (BEM) and the Building Automation System (BAS). The HVAC design process at present places no requirement for interoperability between them. In the performance monitoring use-case, they will no longer be stand-alone elements. ASHRAE Guideline 20-2010 Documenting HVAC&R Work Processes for Data Exchange Requirements provides a use-case approach to information issues. The Guideline 20 process is applied to BEM-BAS data comparisons to better understand where incompatibilities lie. Examples are developed such as equipment naming, operating profiles, energy and physical parameters.

3  BIM-Based Energy Model Calibration for Evaluating Building Retrofit Opportunities

Krishnan Gowri, Ph.D., Autodesk
Recent progress in BIM to BEM for energy analysis has proven to be effective for early design analysis and parametric evaluations of design options. Several cloud-based simulation strategies have been developed for auto-tuning and model calibration using utility billing data. This presentation summarizes an approach integrating BIM to BIM and cloud-based parametric simulations for developing calibrated energy models from BIM using site specific weather data. It is possible to use the calibrated model in conjunction with parametric design analysis for evaluating retrofit opportunities. Examples are presented to dynamically evaluate retrofit options without performing additional simulations.

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 41
Saving Water (and Energy) with Solid Geothermal Design and Operation

Water-Energy Nexus
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Cary Smith, Sound Geothermal Corp.
Technical Committee: 6.8 Geothermal Heat Pump and Energy Recovery Applications
Geothermal heat pump systems have long been known as a leading system choice for energy performance. But in many regions of the world, geothermal is also the best choice for saving water, as it avoids significant operation and water usage from cooling towers used in those regions. Hybrid systems are also sometimes operated with both geothermal loops and cooling towers; these can be operated optimally to save both energy and water.

1  The Energy-Water Highway: Getting the Least Use from Evaporative Devices

Cary Smith, Sound Geothermal Corp.
Cooling towers used by water source systems can consume up to 50% of a site’s potable water. Owners and design-professionals must cut down on CTs that reject waste heat for space cooling by the power of evaporation. Towers consume water, chemicals, and lots of electricity; producing wastewater unqualified to pass through treatment plants. Can anything take their place? YES! Distributed GSHP systems provide thermal leverage on reduced power demand; reducing cooling tower water wastage by 50% - 70% and electric consumption by 60%. Explore how a GX-based Distributed Energy System enables solutions to Energy/Water Nexus challenges.

2  Water Wizards and Water Wasters: Geothermal Exchange Replaces Cooling Towers

Jay Egg, Egg Geothermal
This presentation focuses on a geothermal sourced chiller plant in Florida, and a distributed geothermal heat pump installation near Los Angeles, both in operation for several years, originally slated for cooling towers. Attendees will see in both cases the methodology and rationale by which architects, engineers and owners worked together to choose to eliminate their cooling towers, and reaping remarkable water savings along with energy savings and an array of other tangent benefits.

3  Managing Water in Las Vegas: Keeping the Cats Clean and Cool

Jerry Zupancic, Cashman Equipment
With the ever changing climate we are experiencing in the world, Cashman Equipment is doing their part to conserve water and energy by using a Geo-Thermal system to cool their corporate facilities. They are using 30% less water than conventional systems utilizing two (2) 250 ton cooling towers as a supplemental cooling to the loop used by the heat pumps. The original calculations showed an approximate savings of $46,000.00 over the conventional DX cooling. Yes, as hot as Las Vegas is, we are running efficiently with massive well field below the desert heat.

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 42
Power and Cooling Considerations for Back of Rack Ecosystems within the Data Center

Mission Critical Design and Operation
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Nick Gangemi, Northern Air Systems
Technical Committee: 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Data Centers, Technology Spaces and Electronic Equipment
IT equipment power and cooling trends continue to push the limits in the industry, primarily due to packaging density, high performance computing, and mass scale out deployment. The challenges associated with supporting these increasing trends is further exacerbated with the additional pain points of deploying the associated ‘Back of Rack Ecosystems”, i.e. power and networking solutions. This seminar presents the existing challenges in deploying rack level infrastructure solutions, and the associated best practices and considerations that must be implemented.

1  Rack Level Power Solutions and Its Associated Challenges and Deployment Best Practices

Jon Fitch, Ph.D., Dell Inc
In 2016, ASHRAE published a whitepaper entitled ‘Data Center Power Equipment Thermal Guidelines and Best Practices’. This whitepaper paper discusses how changes to the data center thermal environment affects power distribution equipment. This session will not only highlight key takeaways from this paper, but extend the discussion to current examples and their associated challenges.

2  Top of Rack Networking Solutions and Its Associated Challenges and Deployment Best Practices

Dave Moss, Dell Inc.
In 2016, ASHRAE Released a brand new Datacom book, entitled ‘IT Equipment Design Impact on Data Center Solutions’. While this book highlights different IT solutions and its supporting networking infrastructure, it does not highlight the prevalence of non-optimal networking solutions and the resulting implications to the data center as a whole. This session not only highlights existing and emerging technologies and their associated best practice considerations, but also focuses on real world solutions and the resulting implications to capacity planning and industry efficiency objectives.

3  IT Equipment Exhaust-Side Deployment Challenges and Considerations

Dustin Demetriou, Ph.D., IBM
As the electronics industry continues to push the compute performance objectives of Information Technology Equipment by deploying new technologies, there exists the need to match these objectives with power and cooling best practices. This session discusses several new technologies, including non-volatile memory, active optical connectors and graphical processing units and the challenges of deploying these new technologies within server solutions. The session also highlights how these new technologies are approaching the limits of existing rack and room level cooling solutions

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 43
Urban-Scale Energy Modeling, Part 3

Building Operation and Performance
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Joshua New, Ph.D., ONRL
Technical Committee: 1.5 Computer Applications
Sponsor: TC4.7 - Energy Calculations
Development of urban-scale building energy models is becoming of increased interest for many applications including city-wide energy supply/demand strategies, urban development planning, electrical grid stability, and urban resilience. This seminar has assembled several researchers with capabilities in the field of urban-scale energy models to discuss an overview of the field as well as the data, algorithms, workflow and practical challenges addressed in their applications involving creation of useful models of individual buildings at the scale of a city, urban or metropolitan area.

1  A Data and Computing Platform for City and District Scale Building Energy Efficiency

Tianzhen Hong, Ph.D., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Buildings in cities consume 30 to 70% of cities’ total primary energy. Planning and evaluating retrofit strategies for buildings requires a deep understanding of the physical characteristics, operating patterns, and energy use of the building stock. This talk introduces a web-based data and computing platform, City Building Energy Saver (CityBES), which focuses on energy modeling and analysis of a city’s building stock to support district or city-scale efficiency programs. CityBES uses an international open data standard, CityGML, to represent and exchange 3D city models. CityBES targets urban planners, city energy managers, building owners, utilities, energy consultants and researchers.

2  Urban Energy

Ralph Muehleisen, Ph.D., P.E., ANL
Urban planners use simulation analysis for making long term infrastructure investment and policy decisions based on things like population, income, real estate values, accessibility, and protection of open space and the environment. However, building energy use is rarely part of that planning process. This talk describes demographics, economic process, land use regulation, real estate markets and transportation systems for building energy model tools to assess impact of policy on future building energy use and carbon footprints can be easily determined along with the effects of building energy use on the value of real estate, population, and business economics.

3  District and City Scale Modeling Using Openstudio

Nicholas Long, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
The OpenStudio Platform provides tools for quickly and easily creating building energy models from minimal user input. URBANopt is an open source graphical user interface for examining various scenarios for low-energy districts. URBANopt utilizes OpenStudio Measures to easily simulate high performance building design alternatives as well as shared district energy systems. DECAF is an open source tool for simulating and targeting retrofits of existing buildings across entire cities or regions. DECAF leverages many of the same OpenStudio Measures as URBANopt and can simulate individual buildings or develop statistical meta-models that can be used for high level screening.

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 44
Toward a 21st Century Standard for Natural Ventilation:  Review of Existing and Presentation of New Research

Commercial and Industrial IAQ
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Jordan Clark, Ph.D., CPP Wind Engineering and Air Quality Consultants
Technical Committee: 4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration
Sponsor: SSPC 62.1
Natural ventilation offers the promise of more energy efficient, healthier, and more productive commercial buildings. However, most designers and code compliance officials are in agreement that the current prescriptions for natural ventilation contained in ASHRAE Standard 62.1 are inadequate. This session presents some of the work being done by the members of the Natural Ventilation Working Group under SSPC 62.1 in order to open up discussion on potential standard changes to the greater ASHRAE community and present original research done by the group's members.

1  What Climatic Conditions and Building Parameters Identify a Commercial Building as a Good Candidate for Natural Ventilation?

Alejandra Menchaca, Payette
Travis English, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
One barrier to adoption of natural ventilation is the knowledge that application in inappropriate climates or during inappropriate hours could lead to conditions in buildings which may affect both comfort and IAQ. As such, designers must diligently determine whether a climate is appropriate for natural ventilation. A series of tests on the typical meteorological year weather data can be used for this purpose. For many US climates, even mild climates, under normal design conditions, natural ventilation alone may not assure occupant satisfaction. In most cases, spaces may be advised to use mixed-mode ventilation systems, which combine natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation.

2  Review of Indoor Air Quality Considerations for Naturally Ventilated Commercial Buildings

Elliott Gall, Ph.D., Portland State University
Natural ventilation can provide fresh air for a building and is one strategy for reducing building energy demand while maintaining or improving indoor air quality. However, there exists uncertainties regarding implications of naturally ventilated commercial buildings with respect to indoor air quality. This presentation summarizes a review of the state of building codes and standards, case studies, and research literature regarding the application of natural ventilation to commercial buildings with specific attention to IAQ objectives, including: i) air pollutants of concern, ii) modeling approaches, iii) prescriptive approaches, and iv) new directions for improving IAQ in naturally ventilated buildings

3  Using Facade Pressures to Predict Wind-Driven Natural Ventilation Rates

Jordan Clark, Ph.D., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Two often overlooked but crucial parts of the design process for buildings wanting to take advantage of wind-driven natural ventilation are 1) obtaining accurate facade pressures, and 2) using them in such a way as to accurately predict the amount of air which will enter a space. Through a review of extant sources and presentation of new research, this presentation looks at the various methods for obtaining and using facade pressures and discusses strengths and weaknesses of each.

4  Natural Ventilation Design Incorporating Moisture and Air Velocity Control

Peter Simmonds, Ph.D., Building and Systems Analytics LLC
Natural ventilation in buildings has been around for many years, Robert Boyle provided a description on how to design such a system in the 1800’s. Today's current trend of incorporating natural ventilation or a natural ventilation scheme into building design has led to a quest for a more detailed analysis of space conditions. This presentation presents some modern day applications of natural ventilation which also include space moisture conditions and analysis of air movement within a space.

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 45
Using the IAQ Procedure from ASHRAE Standard 62.1 as an Alternate Compliance Path on LEED Projects: Reports from the Field

Commercial and Industrial IAQ
Emperors II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Christopher O. Muller, Purafil, Inc.
Technical Committee: 2.3 Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal Equipment
Sponsor: SSPC 62.1
CoSponsor: TRG4 Indoor Air Quality Procedure Development
For many years those seeking LEED certification were required to use the Ventilation Rate Procedure from ASHRAE Standard 62.1 to determine the minimum outdoor air intake flow for mechanical ventilation systems. The IAQ Procedure (IAQP) could not be used even when it could be demonstrated that IAQ would be improved along with reductions in HVAC capital costs and ongoing energy costs. This has changed due to the development of an alternate compliance path for LEED certification that allows the use of the IAQP under a pilot credit. Case studies demonstrating successful application of this pilot credit are presented.

1  A Case Study in a High-Performance Office Building By Applying and Comparing LEED IAQ Procedure Pilot Credit to the Conventional Ventilation Procedure

Marwa Zaatari, Ph.D., enVerid Systems
This presentation compares the effect of two pollutant control strategies on both exposures to contaminants of concern (COCs) and energy use in a high-performance multinational technology company. The first control strategy was the conventional ventilation strategy following the ventilation rate procedure of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013. The second strategy consisted of applying the LEED Pilot Alternative Compliance Path 68: Indoor Air Quality Procedure while using air cleaning along with reduced ventilation. This presentation provides results from field measurements of energy and IAQ and documentation of meeting LEED IAQP objective and subjective requirements.

2  Successful Application of the LEED IAQ Procedure Pilot Credit in a Retail Chain Store

Scott Williams, P.E., Williams Building System Engineering, PC
The USGBC LEED process is intended to transform the way our buildings are designed, constructed and operated. Recognizing the limitation of ASHRAE 62.1 VRP prescriptive requirements, USGBC developed an alternate compliance path that allows a robust design and verification process to balance good IAQ with optimization of HVAC system for energy conservation and reduced negative impact of energy production on the environment. This presentation describes implementation of the LEED ventilation process through air quality measurement and verification including occupant surveys. The presentation describes energy and HVAC system economic savings from optimization of ventilation rate versus prescriptive approach.

3  Prestigious College-Preparatory School Achieves Sustainability Goals and LEED Certification Using the IAQ Procedure from Standard 62.1

Christopher O. Muller, Purafil, Inc.
The largest independent co-educational college-preparatory day school in the United States is located in the Atlanta (GA) metropolitan area. Several buildings use geothermal wells for heating and cooling, however, the existing well field did not have sufficient capacity for the new humanities building and the cost of new wells was prohibitive. Consequently, the design team opted to use LEED Pilot Credit 68: Indoor Air Quality Procedure to reduce the overall load on the well field, provide for capital cost savings, and ongoing energy savings. This presentation describes how the IAQ Procedure was successfully applied towards achieving LEED Gold certification.

9:45 AM-11:00 AM
Seminar 46
What Do We Know About Energy Use in Agriculture Facilities

Energy Efficient Industrial Buildings
Emperors I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Carol A. Donovan, Alares LLC
Technical Committee: 2.2 Plant and Animal Environment
This session highlights the energy use data available and describe what assumptions are used in interpreting the available information. It provides a perspective on the portion of agricultural energy used for the operation of agricultural facilities and particularly what mechanized systems in these facilities are major energy users. The session also demonstrates what information is still needed to effectively evaluate energy use in facilities with building envelopes.

1  What Do We Know about Energy Use in Agricultural Buildings

Morgan Hayes, University of Kentucky
Energy use in agricultural facilities is only one sector of the total energy used in the agriculture industry. The challenge is to correctly determine energy consumption for these facilities. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides many reports of energy used in agriculture, however reporting is always provided in monetary values. Using these values, actual energy use can be approximated for different sectors of agriculture and different energy sources. Overall, fertilizer production and diesel fuel are the dominant energy inputs on farms. Electricity use is a major player as well, and the predominant energy form used in agricultural facilities.

2  Energy Use in Livestock Production Facility Systems

Joe Zulovich, University of Missouri
The predominant energy forms used in livestock facility systems include electricity and liquid propane (LP gas). Using the approximated energy use from USDA data and other sources, electricity and LP gas use will be partitioned into different use categories for swine, dairy and poultry facility systems. LP gas typically is used for space heating and water heating. Electricity is typically used for ventilation, air circulation, lighting, equipment motors and on-farm refrigeration. With an understanding of the partitioned energy use within a given livestock sector, the implementation of energy efficiency practices and standards can be evaluated.

3  Energy Use in Indoor Plant Production Facilities

Nadia Sabeh, Ph.D., P.E., Guttmann & Blaevoet
Energy used for growing plants indoors ranges from very small to very large, facility type, and crop. Indoor crop production is inherently more energy use intensive than outdoor cultivation due to the use of systems to control the growing environment. Systems used in vertical farms, plant factories, and cannabis facilities are much more energy intensive, requiring supplemental lighting for 12 or more hours, large air conditioning units to remove both sensible and latent heat, and large fans to achieve high air exchange rates. Understanding energy use in indoor plant production will allow the identification and implementation of energy efficiency measures.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Seminar 48
Did It Really Work?: Theory vs. Practice in Residential HVAC

Building Operation and Performance
N235/237 (LVCC North Building)
Chair: R. Christopher Mathis, Mathis Consulting Company
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee
The late, great Yogi Berra once said: "In theory, there's no difference between theory and practice. But in practice... there is." The speakers at this seminar agree with Yogi. Using measured data from both dry and humid climates, they show how actual energy and thermal comfort in real-world houses differs from expectations. But beyond the problems, the speakers also show data from specific designs and installation practices that have helped contractors meet and exceed customer expectations with simple, low-cost, reliable equipment instead of whiz-bang, expensive stuff that too often fails to deliver comfort and low energy performance.

1  How Dry I’m Not: Measured Humidity Loads vs. Measured Dehumidification By Heat Pumps in Occupied Houses

Lewis G. Harriman III, Mason-Grant Consulting
High humidity can be a problem. It’s uncomfortable and it’s a mold risk factor. ASHRAE and ACCA load calculation procedures provide equations to estimate dehumidification loads in residential buildings. But sometimes, it’s instructive to measure the loads in real, occupied houses, rather than just estimating them. The same goes for dehumidification performance of AC units. Measurements from occupied houses and apartments in Europe and the US suggest that both ASHRAE and ACCA load calculations greatly underestimate actual residential dehumidification loads.

2  What Works and What Does Not: Measured Residential HVAC Performance and Comfort in Dry Climates

Rick Chitwood, Chitwood Energy Management
Performance contractors sometimes say: "In God we trust... all others bring data". Shasta, California has a climate with sensible cooling and heating degree-days similar to those of Chicago. But in our dry climate, we can heat a three-bedroom, 2,400 ft2 house with less heat than a hair dryer, and cool it using one (1) ton per 1,200 ft sq. The data shows comfortable temperatures by using low-cost, constant-volume, low-SEER cooling equipment. The secret is relevant in-process installation measurements, combined with the unusual practice of actually following design guidelines known for decades to be best practices.

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 52
College of Fellows Debate: Codes and Standards Help. Alternatively, Do They Inhibit Excellence?

Mission Critical Design and Operation
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Larry Spielvogel, P.E., Consulting Engineer
Sponsor: College of Fellows
CoSponsor: 1.7 Business, Management & General Legal Education
A great amount of time and effort is put into the writing of standards. Rigorous procedures ensure the correctness and consensus of those standards. There are tensions among customers, clients, government, researchers, politicians, designers, manufacturers, researchers, installers, commissioning agents, financial controllers and litigators. Low energy, reliability, sustainability, and familiarity are set against costs of manufacture, construction, operation, and general productivity. Does a slavish following of standards prevent or inhibit innovation. Does lazy design result?

1  Team A Speaker 1

Don Beaty, P.E., DLB Associates
One of six speakers in two teams of three presents either for or against.

2  Team A Speaker 2

Dennis Knight, P.E., Whole Building Systems, LLC
One of six speakers in two teams of three presents either for or against.

3  Team A Speaker 3

John W. Field, CEng, Native-Hue Energy Management

4  Team B Speaker 1

Steven T. Taylor, P.E., Taylor Engineering, LLC
One of six speakers in two teams of three presents either for or against.

5  Team B Speaker 2

David J. Branson, P.E., Compliance Services Group, Inc.
One of six speakers in two teams of three presents either for or against.

6  Team B Speaker 3

Richard Rooley, FREng, Project Management Partnership

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 53
Commissioning a Central Chilled Water Plant

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Thomas E. Cappellin, P.E., Cappellin Consulting Services
Technical Committee: 6.1 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems
CoSponsor: 7.9 Building Commissioning
Preparing equipment and assemblies for final check-out verification, start-up procedure and proper operation requires a coordinated activity of testing, adjusting, measurement and documentation that will ensure a successful result. This session describes how the commissioning process would be applied to achieve a successful chilled water plant operation needed to comply with the owner's project requirement and the design documents.

1  Commissioning Chilled Water and Condenser Water Pumps

David Cohen, P.E., Grumman/Butkus Associates
The commissioning process for a central chiller plant includes full analysis of the plant's chilled water and condenser water pumps. This includes a verification of pump capacities and proper installation, plus confirming they are started, tested, and balanced for design operating condition. This presentation includes the steps needed to ensure the pumps are fully commissioned to meet the Owner's Project Requirements and perform as designed.

2  Commissioning a Cooling Tower

Stephen Wiggins, Newcomb & Boyd
The commissioning process for a central chiller plant includes full analysis of the plant's condensing water cooling tower. This includes a verification of unit capacity and proper installation, plus confirming it is started, tested, and balanced for design operating condition. This presentation includes the steps needed to ensure the cooling tower is fully commissioned to meet the Owner's Project Requirements and perform as designed.

3  Commissioning a Water-Cooled Chiller

Stephen Wiggins, Newcomb & Boyd
The commissioning process for a central chiller plant includes full analysis of the plant's fluid chilling unit. This includes a verification of unit capacity and proper installation, plus confirming it is started, tested, and balanced for design operating condition. This presentation includes the steps needed to ensure the fluid chiller is fully commissioned to meet the Owner's Project Requirements and perform as designed.

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 54
Cutting-Edge Japanese Technologies SHASE Annual Award for HVAC System and Equipment in 2016

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Shinsuke Kato, Dr.Ing., University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science
This session introduces three different types of buildings. One is a suburb-type Zero-Energy office building, which introduces PV, biomass generation, lithium batteries, a wood-pellet boiler etc. Another is a medium-sized office building, housing an efficient data center and an experimental R&D facility, where cost-effective ITC technology applications are effectively designed and installed. The third is a dormitory for an oil and petroleum company. A gas-fired cogeneration system is also installed to power an electricity, hot water supply, road heating and bath room dryer system. This equipment is well designed around the BCP (business continuity planning) concept.

1  Symbiosis with Nature and the Achievement of Japan's First ZEB

Naofumi Imaida, Shimizu Corporation
This Project is a wooden office building in the forest at the foot of Yatsugatake. The client spent over a decade selecting this suitable site to ensure symbiosis with nature. An “energy-saving system” using passive methods (natural ventilation, direct solar gain, natural lighting), an “energy-making system” comprising a heat and power generator using renewable energy (solar power, wooden biomass resources) and a micro-grid system with a lithium-ion rechargeable battery are adopted to achieve ZEB. This building has been properly operated by environmentally conscious staff and has achieved a year-round PEB (Positive Energy Building).

2  Implementation of Environment-Friendly Office Building with High-Efficiency Data Center

This office building is the latest energy-saving building in Tokyo. By relocating ICT equipment outside the office to the data center in the building and replacing all desktop PCs with a thin client terminal, we have reduced the outlet and cooling loads in the office. Moreover, we control levels of air-conditioning and lighting using positional information of workers, which is determined in real time by smart phones and beacons. Using these technologies, we have reduced energy consumption per floor area by 60% compared to average office buildings in Japan.

3  Corresponding to BCP and Environment Consideration Method for Company’s Dormitory

Takeshi Kimura, Obayashi Corporation,
This presentation describes a system design against earthquakes and tsunamis using a corresponding Business Continuation Plan (BCP) and a community-open-design in a company dormitory in northern Japan. For BCP, a Cogeneration System was installed in this dormitory to save energy, alongside various creative solutions to use CGS exhaust heat as effectively as possible in daily operation. Operational performance has also been improved with a remote monitoring system.

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 55
Urban-Scale Energy Modeling, Part 4

Building Operation and Performance
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Joshua New, Ph.D., ONRL
Technical Committee: 1.5 Computer Applications
Sponsor: TC4.7 - Energy Calculations
Development of urban-scale building energy models is becoming of increased interest for many applications including city-wide energy supply/demand strategies, urban development planning, electrical grid stability and urban resilience. This seminar has assembled several researchers with capabilities in the field of urban-scale energy models to discuss an overview of the field as well as the data, algorithms, workflow and practical challenges addressed in their applications involving creation of useful models of individual buildings at the scale of a city, urban or metropolitan area.

1  Urban Microclimate for Building Energy Models

Melissa Allen, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
In anticipation of both climate change and global urbanization, we conduct research of microclimate impacts on energy systems. Researchers analyze and quantify the relationships among modeled and measured climatic conditions, urban morphology, land cover and energy use; and use these relationships to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. Researchers apply i) neighborhood resolution modeling and simulation of urban micrometeorological processes; ii) projections informed by microclimate for future energy use under different urbanization and climate change scenarios; to produce iii) analysis and visualization tools to help planners optimally use these projections to identify best strategies for energy-efficient urban morphological development.

2  Urban-Scale Building Energy Modeling: Why Working at Scale Matters

Michael Bobker, CUNY Institute for Urban Systems
Geographic Information Science (GIS)-based modeling has provided the opportunity to incorporate large data sets into mapping platforms with analytical capabilities. CityGML provides a widely accepted platform for integrating tools and data sets through a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Examples are discussed for geographically specified utility networks (local distribution); aggregate impacts of technologies by building type; interactive effects between clustered sets of buildings, streetscapes, meteorological boundary conditions and microclimates; dynamic load sharing in community-level energy systems (eg – district heating and/or cogeneration) and electrical provisioning for low-carbon targets. Visualizations make analytical outcomes readily accessible to public stakeholders and policy decision-makers.

3  Application of Building Energy Modeling for Utility Analytics

Haider Khan, ICF International
While building energy modeling (BEM) is most widely used for building design, there are several other important applications of BEM. These include building energy code development, energy efficiency policy development, utility integrated resource planning and demand side management modeling, design, and implementation support. This seminar presents case studies of application of BEM, specifically Urban Building Energy Modeling (UBEM), for utility analytics.

4  Virtual UBEM: Visualizing, Analyzing and Reporting

Drury Crawley, Ph.D., Bentley Systems, Inc.
With the advent of easily created urban scale reality models, creating Urban Building Energy Models (UBEM) has never been easier. This presentation demonstrates how an UBEM can be used to visualize and report on building energy consumption at urban scale. By combining building energy benchmark data with an urban scale reality mesh, users can quickly classify, visualize and report urban building energy consumption. This virtual navigation of the City of Philadelphia demonstrates how UBEM can be used to measure, analyze and report readily available benchmark data.

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 56
Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants and Their Applications, Part 2

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: J. Steven Brown, Ph.D., P.E., The Catholic University of America
Technical Committee: 1.1 Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics
Sponsor: Journal Policy Committee with Co-sponsors TC 1.3, TC 3.1, and TC 8.4
The seminar addresses low-GWP alternative refrigerants and their applications. As regulations and legislation become increasingly more widespread and restrictive, the HVAC&R industry will need to identify viable alternatives for existing refrigerant solutions. This environmentally-driven change is different than past ones since additional constraints are being placed on refrigerants in essence reducing the number of viable single-component solutions. The seminar highlights five papers appearing in ASHRAE’s Science and Technology for the Built Environment November 2016 edition (one dedicated specifically to low-GWP refrigerants.) The presentations focus on low-GWP halocarbon refrigerants containing unsaturated carbon bonds during boiling heat transfer and in system applications.

1  Insights into the Next Generation HVAC&R Refrigerant Future

Stephen Kujak, Trane, Ingersoll Rand
Because of the relatively high GWPs of HFCs, policy and regulatory actions to reduce, restrict, and eliminate their use are increasing in number. These regulatory actions are leading to the development of unsaturated chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons with lower GWPs. Tradeoffs between GWP, flammability, and specific capacity will need to be made possibly resulting in the need for changes to equipment designs. Some lower GWP refrigerants are already being introduced in many market segments. This presentation provides an overview of these refrigerants and presents the state of understanding and development of these alternatives by their environmental, safety, and design tradeoffs.

2  Model Validations for Low-GWP Refrigerants in Mini-Split Air-Conditioning Units

Omar Abdelaziz, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Bo Shen, Ph.D., ORNL
To identify low GWP refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates at standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions. R-22 was compared to R-290, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split air conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and R-447A in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. In addition, the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM).

3  Experimental Evaluation and Field Trial of Low GWP R404A Replacements for Commercial Refrigeration

Ankit Sethi, Honeywell International
Michael Petersen, Creative Thermal Solutions, Inc.
Presented are two R404A replacements: R448A (non-flammable; GWP = 1273) and R455A (mildly flammable; GWP = 146). A commercially available R404A self-contained freezer showed that the compressor run-times of R448A and R455A are similar to R404A due to similar capacity. The 24 hour energy consumption is 9% lower for R448A and 6% lower for R455A compared to R404A. Results for R448A in a commercially available walk-in freezer/cooler matched the capacity of R404A with 4% to 8% higher efficiency. Finally, results of an actual supermarket refrigeration system conversion from R404A to R448A showed energy savings from about 9% to 20%.

4  Horizontal Convective Boiling of R448A, R449A and R452B within a Micro-Fin Tube

Mark A. Kedzierski, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
This paper presents local convective boiling measurements in a micro-fin tube for R448A, R449A, and R452B . An existing correlation was modified to predict multi-component mixtures, which predicted 98 % of the measurements to within ± 20 %. The results showed that refrigerant R452B exhibited the highest heat transfer among the three. For an example case, the heat transfer coefficients for R448A and R449A were roughly between 26% and 48% less than that of R404A; whereas, the R452B heat transfer coefficient was approximately 13% larger than that of R404A.

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 57
Occupant Behavior Driven Building Operation and Maintenance

Building Operation and Performance
Emperors I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Bing Dong, University of Texas at San Antonio
Technical Committee: MTG.OBB Occupant Behavior in Buildings
CoSponsor: 7.5 Smart Building Systems
Building energy consumption is a systematic procedure influenced by not only engineering technologies, but also cultural concept, occupant behavior and others. People spend more than 90% of time in buildings and as a result occupant behavior becomes a leading factor that affects building energy consumption. Occupant behavior driven building operation is one critical way to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This seminar aims to highlight current state-of-art research on occupant behavior driven building operation by LBNL, Department of Energy, the University of Texas at San Antonio and Delos Living LLC. This seminar is part of IEA EBC Annex 66 activities.

1  An Introduction of ASHRAE Multidisciplinary Task Group on Occupant Behavior in Buildings

Tianzhen Hong, Ph.D., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2  Development and Commercialization of Occupant-Centered Building Control Schemes: An Energy Policy Perspective

Marina Sofos, U.S. Department of Energy
Recent literature suggests substantial energy savings and comfort improvements are possible from strategies that bring human preferences into the building operations and controls loop, using either direct, real-time occupant feedback; passive feedback through proxy occupant sensors; or a hybrid of these approaches. This presentation discusses BTO’s recently launched R&D effort at Department of Energy and supporting activities in the context of the current state-of-the-art in occupant-centered sensing and controls, and also outlines the place of this research area in the larger R&D vision for the BTO Sensors and Controls program.

3  Behavior Driven Transactive Energy for Residential Buildings

Amin Mirakhorli, UTSA
Transactive energy is trying to control energy production, distribution and consumption based on economic signals. To have a more competitive market, all involving parties have to participate in this market, including residential buildings. Dynamic electricity pricing is one solution to attract residential building to interact with this market. However, residential buildings' energy management systems are not responsive to electricity price changes. The focus of this research is to utilize energy use flexibilities in residential buildings, to make them more responsive to economic signals.

4  Occupant Preferences on Indoor Environmental Conditions in an Open Office

Jie Zhao, Delos LLC
Thermal, acoustics and lighting account for the greatest sources of discomfort in offices. Seldom have these three factors have been studied concurrently and outside of controlled laboratory settings. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of how temperature, acoustics and lighting affect physiological, behavioral and emotional state in an open office while subjects perform real-world tasks. The environmental, physiological, behavioral and emotional data were captured using sensors, wearables and questionnaires. The data was analyzed to identify environmental factors that influence subject comfort and behavioral change; and to discover the interrelationship among combinations of environmental factors that impact occupants of open offices.

11:15 AM-12:45 PM
Seminar 58
Sewage Water Heat Pump Systems: Recovering Heat, Cold and Water

Water-Energy Nexus
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Jeffrey Spitler, Ph.D., P.E., Oklahoma State University
Technical Committee: 6.8 Geothermal Heat Pump and Energy Recovery Applications
Sewage water represents an enormous, yet largely untapped resource, that could be used as a heat source and sink for heat pumps providing heating, cooling and hot water to buildings. This seminar presents recent research, development and a project case study of a sewage water heat pump system at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. This system also processes sewage water on site for non-potable uses.

1  Waste Water Heat Recovery with Heat Pumps: Possibilities and Experiences

Jörgen Wallin, Ph.D., KTH (Royal Institute of Technology)
Interest in waste water heat recovery in the residential and commercial sectors has increased significantly in recent years. Integration of heat pumps with these systems introduces the possibility to use the recovered heat freely. However, integration of heat pumps also makes these systems more complicated. For the system designer, this means that knowledge regarding the influence of design parameters on the system performance over both the short- and long term is needed. This seminar presentation looks into how different parameters influence the system performance when using heat pumps; a few examples of heat exchangers are also introduced.

2  Recycling Water and Energy at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Part 1: System Design

Trey Austin, P.E., Geo-Energy Services
Today’s evolving market for GeoExchange systems continues to develop solutions that are compatible with large buildings in urbanized areas where site areas for a traditional ground heat exchanger are extremely limited. For both new construction and retrofit situations, alternatives to a ground loop may exist such as waste water systems that recycle non-potable water. In fact, there are over 3500 municipalities with some level of recycled water distribution networks. These untapped resources offer both viable performance solutions and higher potential installation and operation cost savings. This presentation covers such a system at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science.

3  Recycling Water and Energy at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Part 2: System Performance

Piljae Im, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
This presentation highlights the findings of a case study of a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system utilizes the recycled water from the City’s water system as the heat sink and source for the heat pump. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and engineering calculation of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated RWHP system.

1:00 PM-1:30 PM
Seminar TC
Want a Cutting Edge Career? Be in Controls! An Open Session for YEA Members.

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Chad Moore, P.E., Engineering Resource Group
Technical Committee: 1.4 Control Theory and Application
OPEN SESSION: No badge required; no PDHs awarded; presented during the TC's meeting.In this seminar, two speakers share their career path experiences in Building Automation Systems(BAS). The seminar focuses on the different careers within the BAS industry. Chariti Young, Member, Automated Logic Corp. presents, “A Cutting Edge Career in Building Automation Systems”. Jason Beu, The RMH Group, Inc., presents, “Path to a Career in Controls”.

1:00 PM-2:30 PM
Seminar 49
ASHRAE's Residential Initiative: Why We Care

Building Operation and Performance
N235/237 (LVCC North Building)
Chair: Neil P. Leslie, P.E., Gas Technology Institute
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee
Although ASHRAE historically has not focused on residential HVAC energy use, the residential sector consumes at least as much energy as the commercial sector, and approximately one-fifth of all primary energy in the United States. Three Presidential Fellows will present on ASHRAE's recent endeavors into the residential sector. The session covers how the Residential Ad Hoc Committee became the newly established Residential Building Committee, what purpose the RBC serves, and the importance of residential design in ASHRAE standards, including Standard 100, 62.2, 55, and ICC/ASHRAE Standard 700. They also summarize ASHRAE’s residential market advocacy efforts with government agencies.

1  Getting Our House in Order

William Bahnfleth, Ph.D., P.E., Pennsylvania State University
The history leading up to the formation of the Residential Ad Hoc Committee (Now the Residential Building Committee), including why ASHRAE needed to do something, the charge to the ad hoc, and what it accomplished. The session includes a discussion of the ad hoc's activities regarding the role that ASHRAE has played, could play, and should play with respect to the residential HVAC and construction market.

2  ASHRAE Standards in the Residential Sector

Gordon V. R. Holness, P.E., Consulting Engineer
This presentation highlights ASHRAE standards relevant to the residential market sector. The discussion includes an overview of the residential portion of Standard 100. It also summarizes key elements of Standard 62.2, and the new residential green building standard jointly published by ICC and ASHRAE.

3  ASHRAE's Advocacy in the Residential Market

Thomas H. Phoenix, P.E., Moser Mayer Phoenix Associates
ASHRAE's Grassroots Government Advocacy Committee educates local, state, provincial, and national government bodies and officials in areas of interest to ASHRAE members, targeted toward sound government policies for sustainable practices and reduced carbon emissions associated with the HVAC equipment and systems in the building sector. This presentation describes ongoing and planned efforts by the committee to obtain and disseminate key residential sector information to government agencies. This includes a series of Public Policy Issue Briefs intended for distribution to government officials and others with limited technical expertise, but who would benefit from information regarding ASHRAE and its activities.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 59
Recent Research in Data Center Cooling

Mission Critical Design and Operation
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Nick Gangemi, Northern Air Systems
Technical Committee: 4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
CoSponsor: 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Data Centers, Technology Spaces and Electronic Equipment
Recent research in data center cooling is changing our thinking about designing and operating facilities for maximum efficiency and thermal performance and keeping pace with recent infrastructure changes such as air containment and a move to modular systems. This seminar re-considers PUE and energy efficiency, introduces a counterintuitive approach to containment, reveals recent work in designing for uniform tile airflow and discusses the thermal design implications of new modular systems.

1  Does Designing and Operating an Efficient Data Center Guarantee Performance?

Mark Seymour, CEng, Future Facilities Ltd
Data center performance is often focused on energy efficiency. A recent survey found that the only metric for data center cooling performance in common use is PUE. This focus has had significant benefits in reducing energy consumption per kW IT in many modern installations. CFD based studies will show how a singular energy focus may not be the best approach for the business. By ignoring risk to capacity and resilience there is no guarantee of effective cooling. Focusing on effective cooling, on the other hand, is likely to facilitate an energy efficient data center in operation.

2  Computer Room Air-Handler Bypass: A Novel Approach for Reducing the Cooling Infrastructure Power Consumption in Air-Cooled Data Centers

H. Ezzat Khalifa, Ph.D., Syracuse University
A novel method is proposed to reduce the power consumed by data centers cooling infrastructure, blowers and chillers. This method is applied to enclosed aisle configurations in which the CRAH is partially bypassed by inducing hot air into the plenum. This slightly depresses the plenum pressure and eliminates wasteful leakage of cold air. The proposed approach decreases the CRAH blower power and leads to a substantial reduction in the combined power consumption of blowers/fans and chillers.

3  Evaluation of Strategies for Uniform Airflow through Perforated Tiles in Data Centers

Cheng-Xian (Charlie) Lin, Ph.D., Florida International University
Non-uniform airflow distribution through perforated tiles can result in inefficient cooling of servers mounted in racks in data centers. The application of strategies to maximize airflow uniformity is therefore very important because of its direct impact on power density capacity. This presentation examines how computer room air handler (CRAH) position and number of operating units as well as perforated tile types affect the airflow uniformity in selected data center applications. Also, the use of mixed tile types to strategically control airflow to accommodate greater rack heat loads is evaluated.

4  Thermal Design of Modular Mission Critical Systems

James W. VanGilder, P.E., Schneider Electric
Shipping-container size enclosures now often house modular substations and data centers promising higher quality, lower risk, and better scalability than their stick-built counterparts. The electrical or electronics equipment housed in such enclosures may lack fans or be more like IT equipment of traditional data centers. Often a spatially-detailed thermal analysis is required to ensure that air temperatures are adequately controlled throughout the entire enclosure. Such modular applications introduce several modeling challenges related to the type of equipment housed, the cooling systems employed, and the extreme environments in which they must be designed to operate.

2:45 PM-3:45 PM
Seminar 50
Flex Ducts, Hard Ducts and No Ducts: Migration Patterns for Duct Hunters (or not) in the Land of Thermal Comfort

Building Operation and Performance
N235/237 (LVCC North Building)
Chair: Constantinos A. Balaras, Ph.D., Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, NOA
Technical Committee: 6.5 Radiant Heating and Cooling
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee
CoSponsor: 6.1 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems
In the land of comfort, educated home owners are changing their thermal expectations from HVAC systems, and contractors are on the front line hunting for the best solutions. Regardless of ducts or pipes, the “migration” of heat takes a basic understanding of what works and what doesn’t. It is not easy to figure out the right design for the application, especially as homes get more efficient. Low-cost ducted systems may not always work right or be the best fit. This seminar looks at best practices for distributing heat in residential air and hydronic systems, including ducted and radiant design options.

1  Flex Duct Doesn't Mean You Can Flex the Rules

Chris VanRite, M&M Manufacturing
This presentation shines the light of truth on airflow in poorly installed residential flexible ducts. Advertised airflow data is based on ASHRAE Standard 120 testing, which is a valid test protocol, but not reflective of actual performance in field installed flexible ducts. A new ASHRAE Duct Size Calculator (now available from ASHRAE Publications) is also described.

2  Hard Ducts Are Not so Hard

Allison Bailes, Ph.D., Energy Vanguard LLC
Before flex duct showed up on the scene, rigid sheet metal ducts dominated forced air distribution systems. Hard-pipe systems aren’t as common now, but they’re still effective and useful. They can be more durable and efficient than flex and fiberglass ductboard when designed and installed properly. Presented are some best practices to follow when designing, installing, and commissioning hard-pipe ducts systems.

3  What Ducts? Who Needs Ducts?

Robert Bean, Indoor Climate Consultants Inc.
This presentation focuses on hydronics, the original ductless systems as alternatives to ducted systems in residential applications. It provides an overview of converting sensible cooling and heating loads into flow rates, how and why to pick pipes based on velocity and head loss; and how to best distribute the flows to enable occupants to sense and perceive thermal comfort without ductwork.

3:15 PM-4:45 PM
Seminar 60
Blue Is the New Green: ASHRAE Takes the Plunge into Water Use

Water-Energy Nexus
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Calina Ferraro, P.E., Randall Lamb Associates, Inc.
Sponsor: Standard 191, Standard 188
ASHRAE’s previous scope is expanding beyond ventilation, heating, cooling and energy. As designs become more integrated, ASHRAE members are seeking standards and guidance related to water use in the build environment, particularly water efficiency and the impacts of water on energy and health. This session introduces ASHRAE standards addressing water in the built environment, particularly Standards 191, 188 and 189.1.

1  Standard 189.1: Standard for Design of High-Performance Green Buildings

Thomas Pape, Alliance for Water Efficiency

2  Standard 188: Legionellosis: Risk Management for Building Water Systems

Thomas Watson, P.E., Daikin Applied
This presentation covers the background and history of legionellosis and the conditions in building water systems that amplify it. The key parts of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 188-2015 are summarized to give the audience a conceptual framework and sources of more in depth knowledge are given. Compliance requirements, health care facility requirements, the necessary building survey to assess the risk of LD, the key elements of a WMP (water management plan), control points, and the verification and validation requirements. The design, documentation, operation & maintenance of building water systems by the program team of knowledgeable persons is stressed.

3  Standard 191: Standard for the Efficient Use of Water in Building, Site and Mechanical Systems

Fred Betz, Ph.D., Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
ASHRAE 191P is a proposed standard setting minimum performance requirements for mechanical and process systems as well as a required water balance analysis for all water sources and sinks within a building and site. The presentation briefly discusses the history of the standard, define scope of how this standard interacts with other standards such as plumbing and irrigation standards, and highlight key requirements of each section covering everything from cooling towers to vivarium animal watering systems. Finally, examples of whole building water balances are shared to demonstrate how to apply the standard for different building types.

4:00 PM-5:00 PM
Seminar 51
International Experience and Contractors Perspectives on Residential Aspects that Need to be Considered on Every Job

Building Operation and Performance
N235/237 (LVCC North Building)
Chair: Lewis G. Harriman III, Mason-Grant Consulting
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee
It has long been recognized that design and installation faults have an impact on HVAC system capacity and efficiency. However, the magnitude and consequences of these fault impacts was unknown. This seminar provides insights from a recently concluded four-year investigation that quantifies the consequences of failing to observe the design and installation elements contained within the industry’s HVAC Quality Installation Specifications. It also highlights steps taken in Europe that are relevant to the North American market to reduce residential energy consumption, including deep retrofit strategies and incremental options with large market uptake for overall large impact.

1  Quantifying Performance and Efficiency Losses Due to Improper HVAC Quality Installation

Glenn Hourahan, P.E., ACCA
This presentation summarizes the results of a four year study on quality installation issues: the effect of installation errors (e.g., leaky duct, improper refrigerant charge, oversized equipment, incorrect air flow, etc.) on the performance of residential unitary equipment; the extent that operational deviations are significant; whether the deviations (when combined) have an additive effect on equipment efficiency; and whether some deviations are affected by geographical/climatic differences. With an understanding of this information, field personnel are better positioned to focus attention, resources, and remediation effort on the varied design, installation, and maintenance practices in the HVAC sector.

2  European Deep Energy Retrofit Strategies Applied to North American Homes

P. Marc LaFrance, U.S. Department of Energy
The Unites States has the highest building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per capita in the world. The European Union has much lower use per capita, and the United Kingdom has had one of the fastest declines since 2000. Energy efficient materials and products, building codes and overall energy policy are driving reductions in the UK and other European countries. This presentation highlights the steps taken in Europe to reduce energy consumption, including deep retrofit strategies and incremental options with large market uptake for overall large impact, that can be applied cost-effectively to North American homes.

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 61
Developments in Building Benchmarking and Energy Performance Data: A Program Manager’s Perspective

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Amanda Webb, The Pennsylvania State University
Technical Committee: 7.6 Building Energy Performance
Building energy performance data are essential to benchmarking and target setting. While the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is the principal resource for this data across the U.S, recent disclosure laws in several cities and states have produced an additional wealth of data. This seminar examines these data sources from the perspective of several programs that collect and analyze them, and explores the challenges and opportunities for their use. Presenters provide program updates and lessons learned from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s CBECS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ENERGY STAR, and disclosure and benchmarking initiatives in several U.S. cities.

1  CBECS: Highlights from 2012, Looking Ahead to 2017

Joelle Michaels, U.S. Energy Information Administration
The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is the only nationally representative data on energy consumption and energy-related characteristics in U.S. commercial buildings. The most recent data from the 2012 CBECS show that, compared to previous CBECS, commercial buildings are becoming larger and are consuming less energy per square foot, a larger share of electricity, and less energy for space heating and lighting. This presentation presents highlights from the 2012 CBECS and discusses innovative plans for the upcoming 2017 CBECS. It also describes ways in which ASHRAE members can contribute to the planning process for the next CBECS.

2  EPA’s Energy STAR Portfolio Manager: A Consistent Framework to Assess and Learn from Local Data

Leslie Cook, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPA uses the CBECS survey to develop the ENERGY STAR score for commercial buildings, which is made available through EPA’s Portfolio Manager. Numerous states and localities use Portfolio Manager to collect a building’s ENERGY STAR score and other metrics through benchmarking and disclosure laws. As the market moves towards greater disclosure, it is important to maintain simplicity and consistency in how we communicate building performance. This presentation explores new ways to view national data in a local context, opportunities to leverage city and state-level data for analysis, and mechanisms for public sharing of data within Portfolio Manager.

3  Using City and State Benchmarking Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency

Jayson Antonoff, Institute for Market Transformation
In addition to the thousands of buildings that are voluntarily benchmarking, there are now 18+ cities, counties and states that have passed requirements for buildings to benchmark their performance each year and make this information publicly available. These policies are giving building owners, tenants, and policy makers unprecedented access to actual building performance data in their market. This presentation provides an update on these policies across the U.S., examines how local jurisdictions are using the data to motivate building owners to improve the energy efficiency of their properties and discusses the lessons learned and challenges ahead for these programs.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 62
Highlights of RP-1404: Measurement, Modeling, Analysis and Reporting Protocols for Short-term M&V of Whole Building Energy Performance

Building Operation and Performance
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Ralph Muehleisen, Ph.D., P.E., ANL
Technical Committee: 4.7 Energy Calculations
Data collection for measurement and verification for whole building energy performance usually requires one full year of measurement data. ASHRAE RP 1404 developed analysis methodologies for determining reduced time periods for monitoring that would satisfy accuracy levels required for annual energy performance verification. This session highlights the undertaken research, discussing the background of short-term monitoring for long-term prediction, the developed methodology, along with the results and analysis.

1  An Hourly Hybrid Multivariate Change Point Inverse Model Using Short-Term Monitored Data for Annual Prediction of Building Energy Performance: Background and Methodology

Bass Abushakra, Ph.D., Datadigm, LLC
RP-1404 developed analysis methodologies by which the time period for field monitoring of energy use in buildings can be reduced to less than a whole year while satisfying preset accuracy levels of annual energy performance verification. The seminar presents the methodology of investigating the capabilities and the limits of hybrid inverse models developed from the shortest monitoring periods possible for a reliable and accurate long-term energy performance prediction in large commercial buildings. Such methodologies would be of great benefit to high performance buildings, and to Energy Service Companies who need a more cost-effective and acceptable alternative to year-long monitoring.

2  An Hourly Hybrid Multivariate Change Point Inverse Model Using Short-Term Monitored Data for Annual Prediction of Building Energy Performance: Results and Analysis

Mitch Paulus, P.E., Texas A&M University
The hourly hybrid multivariate change point approach aimed at predicting building energy consumption by combining a short-term data set of monitored energy consumption, weather variables and internal loads with at least one year of recent utility bills. Two weeks of monitoring of hourly data in many cases, along with utility history representing the long-term data, were found to be sufficient for estimating long-term energy consumption. This seminar shows the hourly time scale results of RP-1404, along with an analysis that provides recommendations and guidance to energy modelers in their use of short-term monitoring for long-term prediction of building energy performance.

3  Predicting Building Energy Use Using Short-Term Monitoring and Daily Time Scales: The DBTA and the HIM-D Methods

T. Agami Reddy, Ph.D., P.E., Arizona State University
This presentation deals with two simple inverse modeling methods and data monitoring protocols which can be used to identify statistical models that would result in accurate daily energy use predictions. The Dry Bulb Temperature Analysis (DBTA) method only requires measuring dry-bulb ambient temperature for 2-3 months but the monitoring period and length have to be selected judiciously. The Hybrid Inverse Model using daily data (HIM-D) only requires about one month of monitoring and utility bills. The model combines information from recent year-long utility bill data along with a few weeks of monitored building energy use, weather variables and internal loads.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 63
Inverse Design: A Fast Way to Achieve Your Goal in IAQ

Commercial and Industrial IAQ
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Wangda Zuo, Ph.D., University of Miami
Technical Committee: 4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
Designing an indoor environment with good indoor air quality is often a practice of guess-and-correction which is a lengthy process. This seminar introduces how to achieve the desired IAQ for various indoor environment through various inverse designs. Speakers discuss the concept and methodology of inverse design for IAQ. Then the usage of inverse design is demonstrated through applications for offices and aircraft cabins.

1  Inverse Design of Enclosed Environment By Adjoint Method

Tengfei (Tim) Zhang, Dalian University Of Technology
Qingyan Chen, Ph.D., Purdue University
This presentation discusses how to conduct optimal design of an indoor environment based on specific design objectives by controlling the thermo-fluid boundary conditions, such as air supply location, size, and parameters. This study used a CFD-based adjoint method to identify the othermo-fluid boundary conditions. Through defining the air distribution in a certain area (design domain) as a design objective in an indoor space, the adjoint method can identify the air supply location, size, and parameters. The adjoint method can only achieve local design optimal but the computing costs did not depend on the number of design variables.

2  Inverse Modeling for Optimization of Indoor Air Quality

John Zhai, Ph.D., University of Colorado
This talk presents a method that combines the genetic algorithm (GA) with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique, which can efficiently optimize the flow inlet conditions with various objective functions. A coupled simulation platform based on GenOpt (GA program) and Fluent (CFD program) was developed. Two new design methods were provided: the constraint method and the optimization method. A simple 2-D office and an aircraft cabin were evaluated, as demonstrations, which reveal both methods have superior performance in system design. The optimization method provides more accurate results while the constraint method needs less computation efforts.

3  Inverse Design of Cabin Air-Supply Parameters By CFD-Based Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

Tengfei Zhang, Dalian University of Technology
This investigation proposes to adopt proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to inversely design multiple air-supply parameters based on the specified design targets. The method first sampled some thermo-flow data by full CFD simulations, and then the orthogonal spatial modes and their coefficients are extracted. The above method was applied to design the air-supply opening size, air-supply direction and temperature in a three-dimensional cabin with the constraint of a fixed ventilation rate. The results show that the proposed method is able to efficiently determine the air-supply temperatures and directions simultaneously.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 64
Research Update on Activities Toward the Safe Use of Low GWP Flammable Refrigerants

Effects of Climate Change on HVAC&R
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Thomas Watson, P.E., Daikin Applied
Technical Committee: MTG.LowGWP Lower Global Warming Potential Alternative Refrigerants
Sponsor: SSPC-15, and Refrigeration Committee
CoSponsor: 3.1 Refrigerants and Secondary Coolants
AHRI, ASHRAE, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating to fund vital research that will establish a more robust fact base about the properties and the use of flammable refrigerants. This $5.8 million research program is coordinated by the AHRTI Flammable Refrigerants Committee. This session provides the Society with a summary and status update on these key research projects. The audience can learn the industry’s challenge and efforts towards implementing flammable refrigerants. Open dialogue during the discussion phase will help provide valuable feedback to research teams.

1  AHRTI Research Projects on Flammable Refrigerants

Xudong Wang, Ph.D., Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Technology Institute
Three AHRTI projects on flammable refrigerants and their status are presented: Benchmarking Risk by Real Life Leaks and Ignitions Testing, Leak Detection of A2L Refrigerants in HVACR Equipment and Investigation of Hot surface Ignition Temperature for 2L Refrigerants.

2  ASHRAE Research Projects on Flammable Refrigerants

Kenneth Schultz, Ph.D., Ingersoll Rand
Three ASHRAE projects on flammable refrigerants and their status are presented: ASHRAE 1806 Flammable Refrigerants Post-ignition Risk Assessment, ASHRAE 1807: Guidelines for flammable refrigerant handling, transporting, storing and equipment servicing and installation and ASHRAE 1808: Servicing and Installing Equipment using Flammable Refrigerants: Assessment of Field-made Mechanical Joints.

3  ORNL Research Effort on Charge Limits for Various Types of Equipment Employing Flammable Refrigerants

Omar Abdelaziz, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
In this project, ORNL reviews existing information on available studies and methodologies for determining safe charge limits for equipment employing flammable refrigerants. ORNL will then embark on a modeling campaign to evaluate different leak source and rate scenarios for various types of equipment employing A2L refrigerants using CFD dispersion modeling. The project status update is also presented.

4  NIST Effort on Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends

Gregory Linteris, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
For the thermodynamic performance of refrigerants, there exists predictive tools that can be used for working fluid optimization. It would be highly desirable if such a capability could be developed for flammability. The goal of the present project is to develop the capability to predict, from first principles, the burning velocity of pure refrigerants (R32, R125, R134a, R152a, 1234yf, and 1234ze(E)), as well as their blends. Once developed, the predictive models can then be used to understand the effect of individual components of blends on the burning velocity so that guiding principles can be developed for reducing flammability.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 65
Impacts of Technology and Energy Markets to the Performance of Absorption Economics

HVAC&R Systems and Equipment
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Ersin Gercek, P.E., Real Engineering Services LLC
Technical Committee: 8.3 Absorption and Heat Operated Machines
Absorption chillers and heat pumps have gained significant popularity in recent years due to advances in technology and improvements in efficiency and versatility. This session covers a taste of current research in absorption technology, a real world application integrated with renewable energy and a study of overall life cycle economic analysis of absorption systems based on current energy utility rates.

1  Hybrid Membrane-Based Ionic Liquid Absorption Cycle for Water Heating, Dehumidification and Cooling

Saeed Moghaddam, Ph.D., University of Florida, Nanoengineered Energy Systems (NES) Laboratories
Devesh Chugh, University of Florida, Nanoengineered Energy Systems (NES) Laboratories
Kyle Gluesenkamp, Ph.D., ORNL
Omar Abdelaziz, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space cooling is discussed. This system benefits from multiple technologies developed in Nanostructure Energy System Laboratories at the University of Florida. The membrane-based absorption technology utilized in the system confines the absorbent to alleviate the liquid entrainment issue encountered in the conventional packed bed absorbers. The ionic liquid utilized in the system alleviates the crystallization issue and widens the cycle operating temperature conditions. This system collects the space sensible and latent heats from an air stream and transfer them to hot water.

2  Solar Thermal HEAT Pump/Chiller Debut

Donald C. Erickson, Energy Concepts Company LLC
Ellen Makar, Energy Concepts Co.
A 25 ton solar thermal heat pump/chiller (STHP/C) has been commissioned at a hotel in Desert Palm Springs, California. Thermal heat pumps are powered by heat vs electricity. They deliver good energy and cost savings even when powered by natural gas. With renewable heat, and when chilling is co-produced, the savings increase dramatically. This STHP/C is powered by 500,000 BTU/hour of 250°F heat from a solar thermal collector. A backup natural gas heater enables 24/7 operation. The domestic hot water heating is 800,000 BTU/hour at 130°F. The chilling co-product is 25 tons at 44°F.

3  Absorption Systems' Economics

Ersin Gercek, P.E., Real Engineering Services LLC
Use of absorption equipment has gained momentum in the HVAC industry due to improvements in the technology and versatility of new equipment and the recent drop in utility rates. Absorption chillers are almost always used where there is high grade waste heat such as in cogeneration systems. But is it feasible to use direct fired absorbers with current energy prices? This study presents economic performance of absorption technology with respect to the type of equipment, application, geographical location and cost of utilities.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 66
The Best of “Engineer’s Notebook”

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: John Kuempel, P.E., DeBra-Kuempel
Technical Committee: 9.1 Large Building Air-Conditioning Systems
CoSponsor: 4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration
The “Engineer’s Notebook” series in ASHRAE Journal was established in its current form in 2013 with four authors contributing monthly articles on a rotating basis. All four authors are ASHRAE Fellows and senior consulting engineers with more than 100 years of collective practical experience, and the concept of the recurring column is to share with peers what they have learned (sometimes the hard way) and experienced in the course of their careers, along with helpful design tips and tools. In this Seminar, each of the four has chosen their favorite column to date and has adapted it for presentation.

1  VAV Box Duct Design

Steven T. Taylor, P.E., Taylor Engineering, LLC
VAV systems are the most common HVAC system for commercial buildings but duct design practices vary widely around the country. Duct design practices are seldom based on hard analysis of whether they are optimum from a life cycle cost perspective. This seminar compares various VAV box inlet and outlet duct design options including their impact on first costs and pressure drop. The presentation focuses on single duct VAV reheat systems, but most of the principles apply to other VAV system variations, such as dual duct and fan-powered box systems.

2  Reverse Return Reexamined

Stephen W. Duda, P.E., Ross & Baruzzini, Inc.
There is a perception that a reverse-return hydronic piping configuration uses more piping and is therefore more expensive than its direct-return counterpart. While the cost disadvantage of reverse-return is true in some instances, this seminar presents a case that reverse-return doesn’t always add piping length and system cost, depending on system configuration. Reverse-return is sometimes overlooked or dismissed out-of-hand when it offers tangible benefits and could easily have been implemented at no net cost to the project, so a goal of this seminar is to encourage pipe system designers to explore and consider reverse-return in further detail.

3  Waterside Economizers and Standard 90.1

Daniel Nall, P.E., Syska Hennessy Group
ASHRAE 90.1-2013 specifies that “Water economizer systems shall be capable of cooling supply air by indirect evaporation and providing up to 100% of the expected system cooling load at outdoor air temperatures of 50°F dry bulb/45°F wet bulb and below.” Many engineers size the components involved in the economizer (cooling tower, cooling coils and ductwork or piping serving constant load spaces) solely for their primary function without considering how these components affect the ability to meet the above requirement. This presentation discusses whether the above requirement can be met and what are the implications for selection of the components.

4  Improving Central Chilled Water System Performance

Kent Peterson, P.E., P2S Engineering, Inc.
Many large central chilled water systems depend on high chilled water temperature differential, ΔT, to minimize pumping energy and optimize chilled water thermal storage capacity. Buildings directly connected to central chilled water distribution systems should be designed to minimize pumping energy and maximize return chilled water return temperature to the central plant. High ΔT is achieved with proper coil and control valve selection, piping and pumping design and supply water control. This seminar presents ways to improve performance and avoid problems commonly encountered in large chilled water systems.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 67
The Future of Water and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Foodservice

Water-Energy Nexus
Emperors I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Andre Saldivar, Southern California Edison
Technical Committee: 5.10 Kitchen Ventilation
CoSponsor: 6.6 Service Water Heating Systems
Restaurants are among the buildings with the highest energy and water consumption. But utilities, representing 2% to 6% of the operating cost, are a low priority within the design process due to the lack of “hard” data. The challenge for the designer is to identify efficient technologies that deliver consistent savings that “payback” the incremental cost. Fortunately, energy and water efficiency generally translates to increased performance. The less energy wasted the more available for cooking product! Energy and water efficiency is one of the most practical ways to imbed “green” into the design of a commercial foodservice facility.

1  Emerging Technologies and the Water-Energy Nexus in the Commercial Kitchens

David Zabrowski, FisherNickel Inc
Tomorrow’s kitchen will take advantage of new technical innovations in food service equipment to be smaller, faster, more flexible and more efficient. Water, like electricity and natural gas, is a mission critical component of any restaurant operation. Efficient cooking and sanitation technologies as well as regimented maintenance programs can drastically reduce water and energy costs and maximize profits. This session presents examples of new technologies that can maximize output, while minimizing energy and water use and fulfilling the evolving demands of the 21st century commercial kitchen.

2  Commercial Ice Machines: Case Studies in Energy/Water Savings Combined with Load Shifting

Don Fisher, P.Eng., Food Service Technology Center
Ice making machines are ubiquitous in commercial foodservice. Ranging from cube, to nugget and flake-type machines, the installed base represents one of the largest inventories of foodservice equipment. A field study of ice machines in eight restaurants confirmed that the actual ice making (i.e., compressor operation) was coincident with utility peak periods. The measured duty cycles, combined with actual electric load profiles, demonstrated the potential for off-peak operation of these ice machines. A second field study demonstrated a dramatic (34%) reduction in energy use. Furthermore, the operation of the new machine shifted OFF had no impact on the foodservice operation.

3  Optimizing the Design of the Water Heating System in a Full-Service Restaurant: A Retrofit Case Study

Amin Delagah, Fisher Nickel Inc.
Overview and results of an extensive project that seeks to modernize hot water system design and operation are discussed. The speaker discusses a study that monitored use from generation to point of use in a restaurant. Details will be provided on the original system’s energy and water use, delivery performance and overall efficiency. Updates on the design, installation and monitoring of the replacement system will be covered. The study was conducted to understand the limitations of conventional design and ways to remediate performance issues through a redesign that utilizes decentralized water heating, optimized distribution systems, and innovative dishwashers.

4  Restaurant Sustainability: Impact on Energy and Water Reduction

Cherish Samuels, McDonald's USA
This presentation is a case study of a QSR prototype design that evolved from 2005 to 2015 to result in a 16.7% reduction in electric use, a 1.4% reduction in natural gas use, and a 19% reduction in water use compared to the 2005 prototype. The energy savings were evaluated using energy model simulations and spreadsheet calculations that take into account changes operation as well as energy improvements in the design over the 10 year period. The steps taken to achieve these savings are presented.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 68
Thermal Comfort Prediction Tools and Outcomes for the Built Environment

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: John Elson, Ph.D., Kansas State University
Technical Committee: 2.1 Physiology and Human Environment
Achieving the necessary occupant satisfaction with the built environment is a major focus of engineers. The demand to increase energy efficiency requires more creative methods to maintain the essential thermal comfort needs of the occupants. Energy saving measures, such as natural ventilation and non-uniform environments created by windows, can make prediction of thermal comfort complicated for the designer. SSPC 55 has created tools to improve thermal comfort prediction and account for the effects of natural ventilation. This seminar explores the tools developed for the thermal comfort standard and the areas where natural ventilation applications can be improved.

1  Understanding Thermal Comfort and ASHRAE Standard 55: Free Online Analysis and Visualization Tools

David Heinzerling, Taylor Engineering
Recently, multiple free-to-use online tools have been developed to help practitioners and researchers analyze thermal comfort. This presentation covers two such tools: one is the official ASHRAE Standard 55 thermal comfort tool and the other is a mean radiant shoebox analysis and visualization model. Both include the recent Addendum G to Standard 55, which added a calculation method accounting for the comfort effects of direct solar on occupants. Topics will include: advanced visualization of the Standard 55 comfort zone, local discomfort determination, clothing ensembles, direct solar, LEED thermal comfort credit documentation, shortwave vs longwave radiation, glazing properties, and others.

2  How Comfortable Is Natural Ventilation

Peter Simmonds, Ph.D., Buildings and Systems Analytics
Before there was air conditioning or mechanical ventilation, there was natural ventilation. We have come full circle in the quest for low energy and zero energy buildings. Natural ventilation is used on many projects, but how is it used and how effective is it? ASHRAE Standard 55 describes how natural ventilation can be assessed to meet adaptive comfort criteria, how comfortable is this criteria? The work presented shows natural ventilation applications in various locations around the world and the compliance or noncompliance to adaptive comfort criteria. The presentation also highlights areas where natural ventilation applications need to be strengthened.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 69
Design for IAQ Enhancement in Healthcare and Industrial Buildings using CFD

Commercial and Industrial IAQ
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Gang Tan, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wyoming
Technical Committee: 4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
Health problems related to poor IAQ have appeared more frequently in recent years. Indoor pollutants may be generated indoors or can ingress from the outdoor environment. This seminar presents pollutant source control in a hospital by optimizing the air intake design to avoid helicopter exhaust fume entrainment, and local air quality controls through detailed ventilation design for two industrial facilities to meet the requirements of health and safety legislation. Due to complexity of the IAQ related problems, three-dimensional CFD simulations provide informative calculations and help to understand air flows and particulate concentrations during the design process.

1  Design Analysis of the Intakes Using CFD in Hospitals to Avoid Helicopter Exhaust Fume Entrainment and Improving IAQ

Reza Ghias, Ph.D., Southland Industries
Ramin Rezaei, Southland Industries
Transporting patients to the hospitals in emergencies, the heliport is usually located on the roof of the hospital. This may cause the exhaust emitting from the helicopter to get into the air-intakes of the ventilation equipment on the roof, open entrances, and windows, leading to odor complaints and health related issues inside the hospital. Considering complexity of the problem and number of the design parameters, this study used CFD to investigate the helicopter exhaust fume entrainments into the hospital under different wind directions and speed, which helps find the optimum placement for air-intakes to reduce the particles and gas entrainment.

2  Design Considerations for Industrial Health and Sustainability in Large Aircraft Painting Facilities

James Bennett, Ph.D., CDC/NIOSH
Protecting the health of aircraft painters in an industrial environment that contains hazardous metals and organics motivates design and operation of hangar ventilation systems for maximum effectiveness, with a secondary consideration of energy use in these large and tempered spaces. There lacks of consensus regarding optimal air velocities in vehicular painting facilities. This study evaluated cross-flow velocity vs. exposure at approximately 50, 75, and 100 fpm, during fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft painting, using CFD, tracer experiments, and personal exposure monitoring. Contaminant removal effectiveness (CRE) was greater for crossflow ventilation than for other airflow path designs.

3  Using Displacement Ventilation for Airborne Particle Control in an Industrial Space

Mikhail Koupriyanov, P.Eng., Price Industries Limited
It is well known that displacement ventilation can potentially decrease energy usage while improving indoor air quality. There is little to no guidance on how to apply displacement ventilation in an industrial setting for the purposes of controlling airborne particles. The presentation focuses on a large factory space where the control of manganese particles from the welding processes is of primary concern. CFD simulations with particle tracking are used to assess the effectiveness of the design and highlight the most important design parameters that affect breathing zone particle concentrations.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 70
The New Laboratory Ventilation Design Guide, What's In It For Me

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus I/II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Roland Charneux, P.Eng., Pageau Morel et Associés Inc.
Technical Committee: 9.10 Laboratory Systems
This session provides laboratory designers with up to date information on lab design.

1  ASHRAE's Laboratory Design Guide: What's in It for Me?

John Castelvecchi, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Henry Hays, U.S. Department of Agriculture
ASHRAE's Laboratory Design Guide was first published in 2001. In 2015 the second edition has been significantly updated and revised with several chapters significantly rewritten, new chapters added, references updated and design tools added. This seminar provides an overview of the key features of the guide. This seminar also addresses several important aspects of laboratory design that may differ from other building applications.

2  How the Design Guide Serves the Engineer

Jim Coogan, P.E., Siemens Building Technology
Selected, inter-related topics from the Design Guide are discussed to show how the available information fits together to support a design project. Air flow control, space pressurization and air balancing is one set of related topics. Selection and operation of air handlers and exhaust systems is another. This talk shows how the Design Guide serves the engineer.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 71
What's New In HVAC Pumping Efficiency? A Look At 90.1-2016 Updates, EU Legislation and U.S. DOE Efficiency Legislation

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: David Lee, P.Eng., Armstrong Fluid Technology
Technical Committee: 6.1 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems
The drive towards high performance buildings has seen energy standards continue to increase their minimum efficiency targets to hydronic equipment. This session explores the recent changes to Standard 90.1-2016 on efficiency targets of hydronic pumps and the upcoming U.S. DOE pump efficiency legislation. A look at the European Union efficiency legislation around hydronic pumping equipment and how they compare to North American levels is presented.

1  New Standards from ASHRAE and U.S. DOE for Commercial HVAC and Plumbing Pumps

Brent Ross, P.Eng., Armstrong Fluid Technology
This seminar outlines for both ASHRAE 90.1 -2016 and the Department of Energy – Energy Conservation Standard for Pumps, what these changes are and when they will effect the industry. The seminar comments on the implications of the changes to our industry from an energy conservation and cost stand point. Finally, the seminar suggests how these changes could ideally be applied.

2  Future Pump Performance Regulations in EU and USA

Niels Bidstrup, Ph.D., Grundfos Management A/S, Bjerringbro, Denmark
Huge energy savings can be achieved when using variable speed drives on pumps in variable flow systems. However most systems are still equipped with fixed speed pumps due to first cost. For this reason, pump performance regulations are about to be adopted in EU and USA. These regulations comprise the combined unit consisting of the pump, motor and VSD i.e. the Extended Product. Methodologies have been developed which rates the Extended Product according to the overall efficiency. This presentation gives an overview of these regulations and highlights the differences between the US and EU regulation.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 72
Introducing the Guide for Sustainable Refrigerated Facilities and Refrigeration Systems (1634-RP)

Energy Efficient Industrial Buildings
Augustus V/VI (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Daniel Dettmers, IRC U.W. Madison
Technical Committee: 10.5 Refrigerated Processing and Storage
Sponsor: Refrigeration Committee
CoSponsor: 10.1 Custom Engineered Refrigeration Systems
Each refrigerated facility is unique. Due to this, design guidance and system level optimization is rare and difficult especially in the developing world. This ASHRAE research project, co-funded by UNEP and IIAR, has developed a design guide to aid designers, contractors and operators of refrigerated facilities and industrial and commercial refrigeration systems along with the teachers, utilities and policy makers that assist them. This seminar previews the contents and use of this upcoming ASHRAE Special Publication.

1  Refrigeration Systems for Refrigerated Facilities: The Current Landscape

Douglas Reindl, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wisconsin-Madison
This presentation provides a brief overview of the current landscape of refrigeration systems and technologies associated with refrigerated facilities (energy use, water use, refrigerant selection & externalities of direct and indirect effects of refrigerant emissions, sustainability considerations, etc.). In addition, it articulates the need to gather the best practices and technical information related to refrigeration technologies, design and operating practices for refrigerated facilities.

2  Overview of ASHRAE Design Guide for Refrigerated Facilities

Richard Love, Ph.D., Massey University
This presentation provides an overview of ASHRAE's newest design guide. It not only discusses the goals and objectives of the design guide but it also identifies the guide's audience. The presentation also provides an inside look at the guidebook contents.

3  Applying the ASHRAE Design Guide for Refrigerated Facilities

Todd Jekel, Ph.D., P.E., Industrial Refrigeration Consortium
This presentation discusses the guidebook's refrigeration system design example by going through a sample calculation.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 73
Low Energy Building Design Using Exergy Modeling

Fundamentals and Applications
Roman I (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Wangda Zuo, Ph.D., University of Miami
Technical Committee: 7.4 Exergy Analysis for Sustainable Buildings (EXER)
Achieving low energy buildings requires optimal usage of energy in different forms, which can be predicted by exergy modeling. This seminar invites experts to introduce how to perform exergy modeling for evaluating different energy systems such as a PV system and a hybrid heating system. The experts will also elaborate the difference between energy modeling and exergy modeling to highlight the unique information obtained from exergy modeling.

1  A Simplified Exergy Methodology for Net-Zero Buildings Using Rational Exergy Management Model

Siir Kilkis, DSc, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
This study discusses the importance of exergy balance rather than energy balance of a net-zero building with the built environment involving such district connections like heat, cold, service water etc. and presents a simplified degree-hour method and Rational Exergy Management model that enables to calculate the net-exergy feature of any sustainable building in term of exergy exchange between the district and the building.

2  An Exergo-Parametric Study of Hybrid Heating Systems

M. Fatih Evren, Baskent University
In this study, an experimental data based exergo-parametric study of hybrid heating systems is carried out. Experiments are conducted in a special test chamber that was constructed and operated according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 138. Radiant floor heating and convective heating combinations at different splits were investigated for minimum exergy destruction and energy consumption while thermal comfort was maintained. According to the results, optimal radiant system to total system capacity ratio is about 0.6.

3  Energy and Exergy Analysis of Water and Air Cooled PVT Systems with Heat Pipe Technology

Birol Kilkis, Ph.D., Baskent University
The aim of this study is to design a PV panel cooler with heat pipes and to reduce the pumping costs through an optimum design approach using CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques. According to CFD analyses, up to 12% of the original power generation capacity can be achieved by the new heat pipe technology. This paper also compares air cooling by finned heat pipes using natural convection and chimney effect. These results however show that technically feasible option is cooling by heat pipes and by generating useful heat if there exists a demand of suitable magnitude and load profile.

4  Application of Exergy Principles in the Design and Analysis of Heating and Cooling Systems in Buildings

Ongun Berk Kazanci, Ph.D., Technical University of Denmark
Exergy analysis, in addition to energy analysis, enables to study the effects of different operating temperatures on overall system performance. Exergy analysis also enables to compare different forms of energy flows (e.g. electricity vs. thermal) and, therefore, allows a holistic approach to system analysis. This talk outlines the main principles of exergy analysis, shows its applications in the analysis of heating and cooling systems in buildings, and presents results from the comparison of different heating and cooling systems using exergy. Exergy analysis is a powerful tool for improving and optimizing overall system performance.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 74
Pivotal Role of Forward Model and Data Driven Model in Existing Building Performance Enhancement

Building Operation and Performance
Roman II (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Alamelu Brooks, ICF International
Technical Committee: 4.7 Energy Calculations
This session addresses how the two modeling approaches i.e. Forward Model and Data Driven Model will be put in to practical use. Checking, sustaining and improving the performance of existing buildings are often ignored due to lack of information, system interactions and budget constraints. Energy models can be effectively used to address these issues.

1  Application of Calibrated BEM to the Residential Sector

Haider Khan, ICF International
Calibrated Building Energy Modeling (CBEM) was applied to determine monthly energy bill allocations for a non-metered residential community. The calibration was performed using community level utility bills, real weather data, building survey data, and occupant behavior. The procedures can be applied to other buildings and occupant profiles. The results can be translated into algorithms in the form of an easy to use computer tool. Additionally, the monthly utility bill allotments can be calculated each month based on real weather for tenant review and instant behavior education.

3  Data-Driven Approach for Predicting Building Energy Usage

Liping Wang, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wyoming
Accurately predicting building energy usage is of great importance in various efforts on improving building energy efficiency. Data-driven approach and first-principle approach are commonly used in developing models for building energy usage prediction. We employed different data driven methods to predict hourly energy usages in two buildings. One was a synthetic large-size office building from DOE reference building models. The other was an existing commercial building. The obtained hourly energy consumption for each building was divided into training and testing sets. We focused on evaluating the accuracy and model complexity of data-driven models for predicting energy usage of two buildings.

4  Calibrated Forward Model vs. Measured Building Energy Use

Xiaohui Zhou, Ph.D., P.E., Iowa Energy Center
Jason Steinbock, The Weidt Group
For a new LEED Platinum building, a forward model was integrated in the building design process and offered the flexibility to evaluate different design options and compare overall energy efficiency to the local building energy-efficiency code. The model was calibrated using 1.5 years' of measured building performance data after occupancy in 2012. The calibrated model energy use outputs are now being used to compare with the latest two years' (2014, 2015) of measured building energy data. In this session, the comparison results are presented. The effectiveness of using calibrated model output as a benchmark for building energy savings calculation is analyzed.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 75
Connecting Water and Energy in Facility Management

Water-Energy Nexus
Roman III (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Annie Smith, Ross & Baruzzini
Technical Committee: 7.6 Building Energy Performance
Water and energy management are often separated when addressing resource conservation and system efficiencies. However, energy usage is closely linked to water usage in buildings and other applications in what is commonly known as the water-energy nexus. This seminar presents connections between water and energy management, demonstrating how conserving energy usage can reduce and control water consumption. Collected data will demonstrate that the connection between water and energy is more than a correlation. Case studies will highlight design approaches and operations procedures that strategically manage water and energy consumption as part of a facility resource management plan.

1  Water Usage Data in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Katie Lewis, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration
In the commercial sector, energy is used to pump and heat water for domestic and other uses, and water is often critical to HVAC equipment. In certain building types, the usage of water can have a major impact on a building’s demand and performance. Collecting information water usage in commercial buildings is an important step towards a better understanding of the relationship between water and energy. This presentation discusses the collection of water usage data in the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS): reporting rates by important building characteristics, an evaluation of data quality, and discussion of results.

2  Water Usage Patterns and Metrics in Commercial Buildings

Camilla Dunham, WaterSense, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Jonah Schein, WaterSense, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Commercial buildings represent a sizable use of water from U.S. public water systems, include the largest accounts in many jurisdictions, and utilize water for many processes and end uses ripe for efficiency improvements. Yet water conservation efforts haven’t made the same headway in commercial buildings as in the residential sector. This presentation reviews what is known about water use in the commercial sector, discusses gaps in current knowledge and how an inability to describe the variation observed in water use limits water efficiency potential and summarizes recent efforts by EPA’s WaterSense and ENERGY STAR programs to bridge this gap.

3  A Case Study of Water and Energy Conservation

David Sandberg, Noresco
Water is generally overlooked as a source of savings for facilities. The cost of producing and delivering water continues to climb, making it ripe for savings opportunities under energy saving performance contracts. Prisons often have a relatively high usage per inmate. This presentation looks at a recent prison project where prioritizing water conservation resulted in water, sewer, energy and O&M savings, which helped fund significant capital improvements. Water meter data was used to identify a baseline utility profile and achieve substantial domestic water system improvements. Finally, the presentation discusses adopting utility monitoring programs after implementing water system improvements.

4  Air Conditioning Condensate Recovery and Reuse for Non-Potable Applications

Jennifer Isenbeck, P.E., University of Tampa
As humid air blows past cooling coils in the air-conditioning process, moisture in the air condenses and is routed away from buildings and disposed of as waste. This ‘nuisance’ water is being seen as a new sustainable strategy that contributes toward net zero installations and increases resilience in urban areas. As condensate recovery becomes a more acceptable alternate source to satisfy water demands, understanding potential necessary condensate treatment is important. Treatment methods should be considered based on need, efficacy, cost, safety and long-term maintenance. The case studies provided include examples of implementation, considerations, and lessons learned for condensate collection strategies.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 76
Standard 205 HVAC Energy Simulation Standard Representation in Practice

Fundamentals and Applications
Augustus III/IV (Caesars Palace Las Vegas)
Chair: Elyse Malherek, The Weidt Group
ASHRAE Standard 205: Standard Representation of Performance Simulation Data for HVAC&R and Other Facility Equipment, an upcoming standard, has the potential to revolutionize energy modeling through streamlining of operational performance characteristics for typical HVAC component's including chillers, fans, and unitary DX equipment. This seminar explores the early experience of manufacturers, software developers and energy modelers using this standard.

1  Standard 205P: Overview and Structure

Charles S. Barnaby, Retired
ASHRAE Standard 205P (Standard Representation of Performance Simulation Data for HVAC&R and Other Facility Equipment) defines data exchange formats that allow detailed equipment performance characteristics to be published by manufacturers and then read by analysis software without human interaction. This will result in standard methods for automated manipulation of performance data in BIM and other tools, increasing both productivity and accuracy. The presentation provides an overview of Standard 205P and include data examples for unitary air conditioners, liquid chillers, and fan assemblies.

2  Chiller Performance Ratings: A Continual Evolution

Michael Zamalis, P.E., Daikin Applied
This presentation looks at continuous change in chiller performance ratings over the past 30 years. A brief overview of the rating calculation methodology is given and the speaker discusses the changing methods used, expectations and requirements, and formats which have been provided. The development of a standard file type is merely another step in this evolution.

3  Transfer of HVAC Performance Data: The Software Side

Timothy P. McDowell, Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC
This presentation discusses how the adoption of a standard for equipment data will change the development and use of building simulation programs. From the current situation where the developer must create equipment libraries and detailed instructions for creating new data files for the users, to a next-generation where the software can automatically load new equipment data without the user having to perform any formatting, to a future approach where the data is transmitted between manufacturer and software without any user input.

4  Impact of Standard 205 on the Energy Modeling Process

Elyse Malherek, The Weidt Group
This presentation explores the impact of Standard 205 on the consulting energy modeling process including a sample case study. This explores how the accurate representation of chiller performance can result in better comparative results and improved consulting ability.

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