2016 ASHRAE Annual Conference

Sunday, 26 June 2016

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Seminar 1
A Better Writer is a Better Engineer: TC 7.3 O&M Management Perspective on Good Communication

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Mina Agarabi, P.E., Agarabi Engineering PLLC
Technical Committee: 07.03 Operation and Maintenance Management
Successful engineers require many communication skills. This seminar focuses on the value and importance of good writing skills for both experienced engineers and YEA, the requirement as engineers to communicate technical ideas and data to non-technical people, ASHRAE O&M Management perspective on good communication and how to achieve improved communication.

1  Effective Communication Skills for Success as an Engineer

Tom Sahagian, Retired
Successful Engineers require many communication skills that are not generally taught in engineering school or on the job. This seminar focuses on the value and importance of good writing skills for Engineers, the need for Engineers to communicate technical ideas clearly to non-technical people, the judgement to select and present large amounts of data to clients, how to achieve improved communication as a YEA and beyond.

2  ASHRAE Operations & Maintenance Management Perspective

Mina Agarabi, P.E., Agarabi Engineering PLLC
Successful Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Management relies on engineers to practice effective two-way communication with clients, building operators, as well as other stakeholders.  Learn why listening is essential for effective communication in O&M.  Asking the right questions can help you gather better information and helps others learn too.  Writing is also important in O&M management: procedures, protocols and user guides.  Effective communication can help facilities staff transition from reactive to proactive maintenance.

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Conference Paper Session 1
Advances in Absorption Refrigeration

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Hyojin Kim, Ph.D., New Jersey Institute of Technology
Vapor absorption chillers may be a viable alternative to vapor compression chillers and may provide significant energy savings. However, vapor absorption chillers may not be as competitive due to size and cost issues. This session explores various ways in which vapor absorption chillers can be designed and operated in a more efficient manner.

1  Modeling and Analysis of Bubble Pump Parameters for Vapor Absorption Refrigeration Systems (ST-16-C001)

Julia Aman, Turbulence and Energy Laboratory, Centre for Engineering Innovation, University of Windsor
Paul Henshaw, Ph.D., P.E., Turbulence and Energy Laboratory, Centre for Engineering Innovation, University of Windsor
David S-K Ting, Ph.D., P.E., Turbulence and Energy Laboratory, Centre for Engineering Innovation, University of Windsor
The core components of vapor absorption refrigeration systems (VARSs) are the absorber, generator, condenser and evaporator. A pump is a critical component of a VARS to circulate the refrigerant–absorbent solution from the low pressure absorber to the high pressure generator. High quality mechanical/electrical energy is required to run this pump. Furthermore, the electrical pump is exposed to the high temperature corrosive solution. A thermally-driven bubble pump, which can be powered by waste heat or solar thermal energy, offers a simple and efficient technique for lifting a liquid from lower to higher levels, after which it can flow by gravity. In the vapor absorption refrigeration cycle, a bubble pump can be used to lift the solution from the absorber to the generator and also desorb the refrigerant vapor for achieving the necessary cooling effect. The performance of a VARS strongly depends on the bubble pump parameters. So the proper modelling and analysis of bubble pump parameters is a crucial to maximize the cycle performance. Extensive theoretical and experimental research has been performed in order to use the bubble pump for VARS. Some analyses have been developed based on air-lift pumps, some did not consider friction factor effects, two-phase flow, or the gas void fraction. Laminar flow is assumed and heat loss was not included for these analytical models. Beside these factors, thermophysical properties (such as specific heat, heat of vaporization, density, viscosity, surface tension) of the solution are also important for the evaluation of bubble pump performance as well as the overall performance of it in refrigeration systems. In this study, an analytical model of a bubble pump characteristics was developed and experimental work was conducted in order to use this pump in a VARS. In the simulation model, two-phase turbulent flow with heat loss, friction, surface tension effects and other thermophysical properties was considered. The model was validated by operating the bubble pump with water at atmospheric conditions. The bubble pump performance was investigated with tube diameters of 6 to 10 mm and lifting ratios (the ratio of the height of the liquid in the tube to the tube length) of 0.6 to 0.8, and at different heat inputs. Experimental results agreed with theoretical within 14%. The maximum liquid flow rate was obtained during slug flow at 180 watts heat input, a lifting ratio of 0.8, and tube diameter of 10 mm.

2  Experimental Investigation on the Surface Tension of LiBr/H2O Solutions with Additives at Low Pressure (ST-16-C002)

Federico Lonardi, University of Kassel
Andrea Luke, Dr.Ing.
Absorption chillers represent a promising alternative to traditional vapor compression chillers, especially for the air conditioning systems. Indeed, they provide the same cooling supply without such a high electrical consumption, being driven by a low-temperature heat source. On the other side, they are not yet competitive with compression chillers because of their large size and high costs of investment. Their optimization becomes then a fundamental task to perform. Among the several components of these chillers, the absorber has been identified as the limiting one. The main obstacle is the low wetting on its tube bundle, which limits the absorption process. One way to overcome this problem is by the mean of additives. Indeed, small quantities of alcoholic surfactants in the working fluid lower the surface tension, promoting local turbulence at the vapor-liquid interface (Marangoni convection), which in turn leads to higher heat and mass transfer coefficients in the absorber. Nevertheless, only two kinds of additives are mostly used in these chillers and the experimental results available in literature are not in good agreement. The surface tension of water and aqueous lithium-bromide solution with different surfactants is experimentally investigated in this work. Common additives (e.g. 2-Ethylhexanol, 1-Octanol) as well as new additives are used. Their concentration in the solutions is varied in a wide range. The surface tension is measured according to the Pendant Drop Method. Several parameters are varied during the experiments, such as pressure, temperature and surrounding conditions. All the measurements are performed in a closed vacuum cell, in order to have the vacuum condition that occurs in the absorber, and to produce reproducible data. Results are discussed and compared with the available literature. The current study is carried out in the framework of the ITN Marie Curie “SHINE” research program financed by the European Union.

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Workshop 1
Are Rumors of MERV's Death Exaggerated?

HVAC Systems and Equipment
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Donald Thornburg Jr., Camfil USA
Technical Committee: 02.04 Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant Removal Equipment
Sponsor: SSPC 52.2
ISO 16890 the global filtration standard is due to be published in 2016 and could replace ASHRAE 52.2 as the air filtration laboratory test method. What is ISO 16890, how does it work and how does it affect ASHRAE Standards (62.1, 62.2, 90, 170, etc), members, users and the industry?

1  How Do ISO 16890 and ASHRAE 52.2 Compare?

Bruce McDonald, P.Eng., Consultant
This presentation dissects the major differences in the test methods and protocols of ASHRAE 52.2 and the soon to be published ISO 16890.  These air filtration test methods use similar equipment, but handle their respective data products very differently.  These differences can and will have some impact on other ASHRAE Standards, industry standards, and customer specifications.  Thus, understanding these differences beforehand is very important to users and specifiers of air filtration equipment.

2  Impact of ISO 16890 on ASHRAE Standards and Guidelines

Anja Coenen, Ph.D., Freudenberg Filtration Technologies
It is very likely that ISO 16890 will be published in 2016 and replace the EN779 in Europe. With a more globalized world this standard will also affect the evaluation of filter performance in the US, but how does this standard affect standards and guidelines published by ASHRAE? In this work, we will discuss: Which ASHRAE standards reference to ASHRAE 52.2 and would be affected if 52.2 was replaced by ISO 16890? What are the effects on filter manufacturers, filter laboratories and users of filtration products?

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Workshop 2
ASHRAE's Strategic Plan for Mobile and Web Apps

Fundamentals and Applications
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Stephen Roth, P.E., Carmel Software Corp.
Technical Committee: 01.05 Computer Applications
This workshop discusses ASHRAE's strategic plan for the development of mobile and web apps based upon the various standards and HoF chapters. Feedback is also solicited from Society about the types of mobile/web-based apps that ASHRAE should be offering. A representative from ASHRAE Publications solicits the following information: What do ASHRAE members think about the current list of apps offered on the ASHRAE bookstore? What types of apps should ASHRAE be offering that are not currently available? What are members' thoughts about the new ASHRAE 90.1 app? How should apps be priced?

1  ASHRAE's Mobile and Web App Agenda

Steve Comstock, ASHRAE
Steve discusses ASHRAE Publication's philosophy behind its mobile and web app strategy and talks about its successes and issues so far. In addition, Steve discusses future mobile and web app plans and also solicit feedback from forum attendees.

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Conference Paper Session 2
Airflow Requirements and Modeling Approaches

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Joy Altwies, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wisconsin-Madison
Different space applications and uses often dictate widely varying air flow and ventilation requirements. This session explores different and unique methods to model these requirements in three different applications: data center, laboratory and kitchens with multiple cooking appliances.

1  Experimental Study on Ventilation Requirements of Exhaust Hoods for Multiple Cooking Appliances (ST-16-C003)

Toshiya Iwamatsu, Ph.D., Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
Wataru Urabe, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
The purpose of this research was to investigate the ventilation requirements of an exhaust hood for multiple cooking appliances. There are two types of exhaust hoods in commercial kitchens: one is for a single cooking appliance, the other is for multiple cooking appliances. The face velocity of 60 fpm (0.3m/s) at the exhaust hoods opening is usually adopted as typical ventilation rate in Japanese commercial kitchen. Though the larger size of exhaust hoods opening increase the ventilation requirements, the amount of heat generation from cooking appliances under the exhaust hood is not reflected to the ventilation requirements. It seems to be necessary to know the ventilation requirements of exhaust hoods for multiple cooking appliances because the cooking appliances installed over multiple cooking appliances are various characteristics of heat generation. We investigated whether the sum of the ventilation requirements of exhaust hoods installed over each single cooking appliance is regarded as the ventilation requirements of exhaust hood for multiple cooking appliances. We measured capture efficiencies of exhaust hoods installed over single and multiple cooking appliances. Provided that the permissive level of capture efficiency is 90 percent, the ventilation rates of exhaust hoods for a fryer, noodle cooker, and IH table (single cooking appliance) were 253 cfm (430m3/h), 221 cfm (375m3/h), 194 cfm(330m3/h), respectively. The ventilation rates of exhaust hoods for a fryer with two IH tables and a noodle cooker with two IH tables (multiple cooking appliances) were 430 cfm (730m3/h) and 470 cfm (800m3/h), respectively. The sum of the ventilation rates of exhaust hoods for a fryer with IH tables and a noodle cooker with IH tables were 642 cfm (1090m3/h) and 610 cfm (1035m3/h), respectively. The sum of the ventilation rates for single cooking appliances is higher than that measured in the case of exhaust hoods for multiple cooking appliances. These results indicate that the capture and containment performance of exhaust hoods for multiple cooking appliances is higher than that of exhaust hoods for single cooking appliances. The size of exhaust hood’s opening for multiple cooking appliances is large compared with the exhaust hoods for single cooking appliances. Therefore it is easy for the exhaust hoods for multiple cooking appliances to capture thermal plumes even if thermal plumes are expanded by air disturbance. It suggests that the sum of the ventilation rates for single cooking appliances is the simplest way to estimate the ventilation rates for multiple cooking appliances.

2  Analysis of Contaminant Flow Path and Laboratory Ventilation Effectiveness (ST-16-C004)

Kishor Khankari, Ph.D., AnSight LLC
The main goal of laboratory ventilation systems is to maintain certain levels of contaminant concentrations to provide safe environment for all personnel at all locations within the laboratory space. Laboratories frequently employ high ventilation rates with single pass outside air without any recirculation which makes laboratory ventilation systems energy intensive. The locations of supply and exhaust air play important role in determining the flow path of the supply air. Ideally the supply air should effectively sweep the laboratory space over the contaminant sources and dilute the contaminant levels without significant air recirculation. This paper with the help Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis will evaluate the impact of various parameters on the effectiveness of contaminant removal. These parameters include the supply airflow rate, supply and exhaust locations, contaminant generation rates and locations of contaminant sources, and type of exhaust systems involving exposure control devices. Ventilation effectiveness will be evaluated by analyzing three dimensional distribution of contaminant concentration along with the three dimensional airflow patterns in the space. This analysis will provide valuable insights to practicing and design engineers related to the design and operation of laboratory ventilation systems.

3  A Hybrid Turbulence Model Coupling Strategy for CFD Simulation of a Data Center Model (ST-16-C005)

Cheng-Xian Lin, Ph.D., Florida International University
Long Phan, Florida International University
Bin Liu
Although full-field simulation using computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer (CFD/HT) tools can be applied to predict the flow and temperature fields inside data centers, their running time remains the biggest challenge to most modelers. From a simulation standpoint, there are still rooms for improving the speed of a full-field simulation process of a CFD/HT model whose bounded domain mostly consists of inviscid regions such as data center. Since the inviscid domain is mainly solved using Euler equations, the computing time for it is much faster than solving full Navier-Stokes equations with turbulent models for viscous domains. However, it is less desired to fully replace the viscous regions due its incapability of capturing the physics in these regions such as turbulence. Therefore, if inviscid domain is solved simultaneously with viscous domain, both the speed and accuracy will be much improved. In this paper, the inviscid-viscous coupling strategy is introduced in the solution domain to drastically reduce the running time while preserving the accuracy of a data center model. New criteria for dividing the inviscid, viscous regions, as well as interface region are presented. Step by step instruction on how to construct such regions for a data center model is also provided. The results show this approach’s superb simulation speed, while the accuracy is mostly retained from a full CFD/HT simulation.

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Seminar 2
Results of RP-1651 Development of Maximum Technically Achievable Energy Targets for Ultra-Low Energy Use Commercial Buildings

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Don Brandt, Trane, Inc. (Retired)
Technical Committee: MTG.ET Energy Targets
Now that the research and final report are complete for RP-1651, this seminar presents an overall summary of the research results and the most promising future technically. The results include a comprehensive suite of advanced technologies packaged to achieve the maximum technically achievable energy efficiency levels across a wide range of commercial building types.

1  Results of RP-1651: Development of Maximum Technically Achievable Energy Targets for Ultra-Low Energy Use Buildings

Jason Glazer, P.E., GARD Analytics, Inc.

How energy efficient can commercial and multifamily buildings become in the near future if first cost is
not considered? This presentation describes how building energy simulation modeling was used to try to answer this question. The RP-1651 project involves; identifying advanced technologies to include in modeling of ultra-low energy targets, simulating maximum commercial building energy efficiency levels that are technically achievable now or in the near future by modeling using the DOE reference building models, simulating alternative scenarios examining the relative impact of groups of measures and finally, the energy savings results for the reference buildings and climates will be discussed.

2  Background on Energy Targets MTG Scope and the Reference Buildings Used in RP-1651

Drury Crawley, Ph.D., Bentley Systems, Inc.

This presentation provides an overview of the scope for RP-1651 and the reference building models that will be used in the analysis performed for RP-1651.  The reference buildings cover more than 80% of the commercial building stock including offices, retail, warehouse, healthcare, restaurant, apartments and schools.  Reference building models are based on Standard 90.1 and have been used to analyses the energy impacts of new versions of that standard. The models were developed for all 17 climate zones throughout the United States.

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Workshop 3
Developing the Business Case for Submetering: Leveraging GSA’s Portfolio to Demonstrate Submeter Functionalities, Range of Benefits and Cost Savings

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kinga Hydras, U.S. General Services Administration
Technical Committee: 07.06 Building Energy Performance
The session provides an overview of current standards and Federal mandates around submetering and explores energy conservation opportunities through the usage of granular energy data. Recent industry trends show that installation of metering devices after the primary utility meter that measure actual resource consumption are bringing multiple benefits to commercial building owners. The GSA developed a Submeter Framework that provides a standardized means to map submeter functionalities to a range of benefits. The Framework is the basis of the newly introduced SFTool Submetering module and the interactive Submetering Wizard.

1  Developing the Business Case for Submetering: Leveraging GSA’s Portfolio to Demonstrate Submeter Functionalities, Range of Benefits and Cost Savings

Kinga Hydras, U.S. General Services Administration
Recent industry trends show that installation of metering devices after the primary utility meter that measure actual resource consumption are bringing multiple benefits to commercial building owners. These submetering systems could allow GSA to monitor energy usage for individual tenants, departments, whole floors, pieces of equipment or other loads individually to account for their actual energy usage.The GSA developed a Submeter Framework that provides a standardized means to map submeter functionalities to a range of benefits. The framework also assists stakeholders with identifying data needed to determine the associated costs and monetary savings resulting from submetering projects.

2  Developing the Business Case for Submetering: Standards and Mandates

Martin Weiland, P.E., US General Services Administration
The use of submeters has grown significantly in recent years at both the National and State level. As the value of submeters becomes more well known and practiced, the allowance and requirement of metering systems has increased tremendously to attain the wide array of benefits they offer. The presentation summarizes the current state of policies related to submetering at the National, State, and City level.

8:00 AM-9:00 AM
Seminar 3
U.S. EPA Guidance for Protecting Indoor Air Quality during School Building Upgrades

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Dawen Lu, P.E., Lu + Smith ENGINEERS, PLLC
Technical Committee: 09.07 Educational Facilities
A school’s indoor environment can have significant impacts on health and learning. It is important to protect IAQ during school building upgrades, including energy-efficiency upgrades. There can be a mistaken impression that energy efficiency and IAQ are at odds with each other. When energy efficiency and IAQ protection goals are integrated, schools can achieve strong results in both areas. Alternatively, if careful attention is not paid to the interaction between energy management and IAQ, occupant health can suffer. The U.S. EPA recently released Energy Savings Plus Health: IAQ Guidelines for School Building Upgrades, and this new guidance is presented.

1  Energy Savings Plus Health: IAQ Guidelines for School Building Upgrades

Gregory Brunner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPA developed “Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School Building Upgrades” to help school officials protect and improve indoor air quality (IAQ) during building upgrades, including energy efficiency upgrades. This presentation will provide background on why EPA developed this Guide, how the Guide is structured, and an overview of 23 priority IAQ issues that should be addressed during school building upgrades. The Guide includes assessment protocols, and recommended actions to be followed for each priority issue during the school building upgrade process.

2  Energy Savings Plus Health: School Building Checklist Generator

Gregory Brunner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
The “Energy Saving Plus Health – School Building Upgrade Checklist Generator” is a tool for use with EPA’s new Energy Savings Plus Health Guide. The Checklist Generator can be used to create customized checklists for each individual project. Users can select from a menu of typical building upgrade activities, as applicable to their project. It helps verify that the assessments and recommended actions have been performed to protect/enhance IAQ during the building upgrade. This presentation will provide an overview of the Checklist Generator tool, and identify other resources available to users of EPA’s new guidance for school building upgrades.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 3
Novel Modeling Approaches

Research Summit
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Ratnesh Tiwari, Ph.D., University of Maryland
The session addresses modern energy modeling methods to better compare the operation of commercial buildings with self-learning modeling techniques and time-series auto regression. The session also discusses the development of baseline models for industrial facilities.

1  Development and Testing of Building Energy Model Using Non-Linear Auto Regression Neural Networks (ST-16-C007)

Nabil Nassif, Ph.D., P.E., North Carolina A&T State University
Buildings account for about 48 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. Of this energy, heating and cooling systems use about 55 percent, while lights and appliances use the other 35 percent of energy use of existing buildings. If energy-use trends continue, buildings will become the largest consumer of global energy by 2025. The development of building energy savings methods and models becomes apparently more necessary for a sustainable future. Most new buildings are equipped with modern building automation system BAS and direct digital control that have the ability to collect large amounts of data. However, even with modern technologies, those buildings are unfortunately still not operating optimally due to the absence of computational means and centralized solutions embedded into the BAS. Therefore, there is a significant need to investigate how modern computational techniques can help generate the analysis needed to gain full benefit from real-time data and at the same time perform many potential intelligent applications such as modelling, optimization, energy efficiency and energy assessment, and fault detection and diagnosis. This paper discusses the modeling methodologies for building energy system using time series auto regression artificial neural networks. The model can be integrated into energy solution tools for building energy assessment, optimization, fault detection and diagnosis, and many other applications. The model predicts whole building energy consumptions as function of four input variables, dry bulb and wet bulb outdoor air temperatures, hour of day and type of day. To train and test the models, data from twenty existing buildings and from simulations are used for the analysis. Advanced computational methods are used for data analysis and preprocessing. The wavelet basis is used to remove the noise and anomalies. Different neural network structures are tested along with various input delays to determine the one yielding the best results in term of mean square error. The results show that the developed model can provide results sufficiently accurate for its use in various energy efficiency and saving estimation applications.

2  Gaussian Process Baseline Regression Models in Industrial Facilities (ST-16-C008)

Joseph Carpenter, University of Alabama
Zheng O`Neill, Ph.D., P.E., University of Alabama
Keith Woodbury, Ph.D., P.E., University of Alabama
Due to energy becoming a prominent topic in the sciences, creating baseline energy models for buildings has become a major area of research. Baseline models help determine dependency on ambient temperature or other parameters, while also helping show if energy reduction is due to building retrofits, occupancy, or ambient temperature. Several different methods of creating a baseline models for commercial and residential buildings, however few attempts have been made to create baseline energy models in industrial facilities, with only simple methods being analyzed. Since industrial facilities account for 33% of the annual energy usage within the United States (EIA), energy usage and finding energy saving opportunities in industrial facilities needs to be analyzed. While most industrial facilities energy usage is strongly dependent on production, some can be very dependent on weather especially if the facility is being conditioned. Even in an industrial facilities major energy consumption is used for production the energy usage might still be temperature dependent due to equipment being temperature dependent (i.e. chillers, furnaces, boilers, etc.). To understand an industrial facility’s energy usage is to create a baseline energy model. Currently only change-point regression models have been commonly used for analysis in industrial facilities. An analysis of the effectiveness of using Gaussian process regression (GPR) to develop a baseline energy usage models in industrial facilities from utility bill data and hourly data is presented in this paper.  Gaussian process regression uses a covariance matrix of the input variables to construct the model compared to using a pre-defined relationship between the input-output variables. By using a covariance matrix Gaussian process regression is more flexible than traditional parametric regression models. Two case studies are presented: using utility bill data to create a Gaussian process regression model and a using hourly data to create a Gaussian process regression model. In all cases the baseline regression models gave a CV-RMSE of 20% or lower showing that hourly data or utility bill data is capable of producing accurate baseline models defined by ASHRAE Guideline 14.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Workshop 4
DDC for Smart Buildings and Smart Grid

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Cynthia Moreno, T&M Mechanical Sales Company
Technical Committee: 01.04 Control Theory and Application
CoSponsor: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
Not all energy dashboards are created equally. This seminar reviews the established classification of energy dashboards. Energy dashboards are a graphical user interface that resembles an automobile dashboard. A web-based energy dashboard allows for display of real-time building performance and external information. This workshop discusses the latest technology in energy dashboards and DDC monitoring. Learn about smart metering and how its integration into energy dashboards can become an invaluable tool for today's high performance green buildings.

1  Criteria for Building Automation Dashboards

Frank Shadpour, P.E., SC Engineers, Inc.
All dashboards are not created equal. The term “dashboard” today continues to be flaunted when marketing any screen-based display with flashy graphics and energy related charts. But what do you get when you decide to purchase a dashboard?  This workshop presents a rational method for categorizing building automation dashboards to indicate required features at each level so that owners, operators, designers, and contractors can discuss their needs in the same terms.

2  Smart Metering through Controls

Larry J. Fisher, ECT Services
The presentation will provide the latest available technology in smart grid interface through building automation systems.  Practical scenarios and applicable "rule-of-thumb" checks in smart metering will be discussed.  The presentation will include an overview of governing code and various ASHRAE and IEEE guidelines and standards.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 4
Energy Use Index (EUI): Breakdown of Energy Components of Tall, Supertall and Megatall Buildings Both Domestic and International

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Peter Simmonds, Ph.D., Building and Systems Analytics LLC
Technical Committee: 09.12 Tall Buildings
Based on a very successful seminar held in Orlando, this session provides a breakdown of energy components for the buildings being presented. This seminar illuminates energy components of tall, supertall and megatall buildings which can be optimized to reduce energy consumption and provide opportunities for net zero buildings.

1.00  EUI Breakdown for Tall Buildings in Chicago and Internationally

Mehdi Jalayerian, P.E., ESD
Specifics of EUI for buildings in Chicago were presented in Orlando. This presentation provides information on the energy components of the buildings.

2.00  Specifics of EUI for Selected Buildings Around the World

Stephen Ray, Ph.D., P.E., North Park University
Details of the Energy Use index from some selected buildings were presented in Orlando. This presentation will provide a more detailed breakdown of the buildings energy components.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 4
Radiant Cooling Systems

HVAC Systems and Equipment
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Helen R. Cerra, ChemTreat, Inc.
This session explores three applications of radiant cooling systems to reduce energy consumption to meet building cooling demands. The first presentation evaluates three applications of radiant cooling in various Indian climate zones compared to an all air system. The second discusses the possibilities of passive cooling panels to lower water temperatures below ambient dry-bulb temperatures. Lastly, the session evaluates nighttime cooling of office building with radiative cooling panels, based on studies performed in Copenhagen, Milan and Athens.

1  Passively Cooling Water below the Ambient Temperature during the Day via Radiative Sky Cooling (ST-16-C009)

Eli Goldstein, Ph.D., Stanford University
Aaswath Raman, Ph.D., Stanford University
Shanhui Fan, Ph.D., Stanford University
A panel has been developed that when exposed to the sky, will cool itself below the ambient air temperature by a mechanism known as radiative sky cooling. In this mechanism, heat is emitted from the panel’s surface to the atmosphere as long-wave infrared radiation. Since the atmosphere is transparent to long-wave infrared radiation, the panel surface is able to do heat exchange with the upper atmosphere, which is typically much colder than the ambient air temperature. Remarkably, this is an entirely passive and renewable mechanism that can be used to reject heat to the environment, even at temperatures below the ambient air temperature. Historically, this mechanism has only been accessed at night. However, we recently demonstrated that a properly designed surface can achieve the same effect during the day, making radiative sky cooling possible even under direct sunlight.

In this paper, a panel with a surface designed for radiative sky cooling is used to demonstrate the passive cooling of water below the dry-bulb temperature with no evaporative water losses, where the only energy input is to pump water. For a surface area of 0.74 m2 (8 ft2), we demonstrate water cooling of 3°C (5.4°F) below the dry-bulb temperature at a water flow-rate between 6-9 L/hr (1.6-2.4 gal/hr). This corresponds to an effective heat rejection rate between 40 and 100 W/m2 (13 and 32 Btu/hr-ft2).

One possible application of these panels is to serve as a modular cooling tower, replacing a traditional cooling tower in a water chiller system. This might be desired under conditions when water resources are constrained, and high efficiency cooling is required. To demonstrate the benefit of the cooling panels on a water chiller system, a thermodynamic analysis using the TMY3 dataset (typical meteorological data) from Las Vegas, NV is presented and the benefit on a typical office building’s cooling system is assessed.

2  Analysis of Different Configuration of Radiant Cooling System Integrated with Cooling Tower for Different Indian Climatic Zones (ST-16-C010)

Mahabir Bhandari, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Jyotirmay Mathur, Dr.Ing., Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Robin Jain, Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Yasin Khan, P.E., Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Prateek Srivastava, Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Radiant cooling system has proven to be a low energy consumption system for building cooling. This study describes the use of cooling tower in radiant cooling system to improve the system efficiency. A comprehensive simulation feasibility study of the application of cooling tower in radiant cooling system was performed for the fifteen cities in different climatic zones of India. It was found that in summer, the wet bulb temperature (WBT) of the different climatic zones except warm-humid is suitable for the integration of cooling tower with radiant cooling system.  In these climates as an average 24°C to 27°C temperature of chilled water can be achieved by using cooling tower. In order to achieve the energy saving potential the three different configurations of radiant cooling system have been compared in terms of energy consumption. The different configurations are: the radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower to provide chilled water to the floor, wall and ceiling mounted tubular installation. A variable air volume system is also coupled for the dehumidification, ventilation and additional cooling. The radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower to provide chilled water to the wall and ceiling mounted tabular installation. In this arrangement a separate chiller has also been used to provide chilled water at 16°C to the floor mounted tubular installation. A dedicated outdoor air system is also coupled for dehumidification and ventilation purpose. The radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower to provide chilled water to the wall mounted tabular installation and a separate chiller is used to provide chilled water at 16 °C to the floor and ceiling mounted tabular installation. A dedicated outdoor air system is also coupled for dehumidification and ventilation. A conventional all-air system has also been simulated as a baseline to compare these configurations for assessing the energy saving potential.

3  Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Nighttime Radiative Cooling (ST-16-C011)

Eleftherios Bourdakis, Technical University of Denmark
Ongun B. Kazanci, Technical University of Denmark
Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D., Technical University of Denmark
Fabio Grossule, Technical University of Denmark
The energy consumption globally has been increasing drastically the past decades, mainly due to the population growth and the industrial and technological progress. In order to address this issue, the European Union has launched several directives to decrease energy use, increase energy efficiency and increase use of renewable energy sources. The aim is that by 2020 all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings. A solution that could contribute to this is the combination of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity and phase change material (PCM) for the reduction of peak cooling demand.

In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels. Apart from cold water for space cooling, the installation was capable of providing domestic hot water from both types of panels and electricity from the PV/Ts. This system was simulated for the period from 1st of May until 30th of September, under the weather conditions of Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Athens (Greece).

In Athens and Milan the operative temperature was within the range of Category III of EN 15251 (23 – 26oC, 73.4 – 78.8oF) for 81% and 83% of the occupancy period respectively, while in Copenhagen it was within the range only for 63%. Furthermore, the percentage of PCM used at the end of the occupancy period was 86%, 81% and 80% for Copenhagen, Milan and Athens, respectively. Nighttime radiative cooling provided for Copenhagen 61%, for Milan 36% and for Athens 14% of the cooling energy required for discharging the PCM. Furthermore, the average cooling power per unit area provided by the PV/T panels was 43 W/m2 for Copenhagen, while for Milan and Athens it was 36 W/m2 and 34 W/m2, respectively. The cooling power of the unglazed solar collector was negligible. Finally, the total electricity produced in Copenhagen for the simulated period was 371 kWh, while for Milan and Athens it was 380 and 439 kWh, respectively.

It was concluded that the nighttime radiative cooling can be a satisfying solution for providing space cooling to office buildings. The performance of the installation could be improved by implementing a solar shading system and a more precise control strategy.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 5
Innovative Absorption System Applications for Both Heating and Cooling

HVAC Systems and Equipment
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Ersin Gercek, P.E., Real Engineering Services LLC
Technical Committee: 08.03 Absorption and Heat Operated Machines
Absorption systems can be used in a variety of cooling and heating applications often simultaneously to improve overall system efficiency. This session introduces dual and triple lift (not stage) absorption systems with a case study. The session also covers modern absorption systems on district heating and cooling commercial water heating applications.

1  Practical Application of an Absorption Heat Pump to Commercial Water Heating

Patrick Geoghegan, Ph.D., ORNL

Commercial hot water heating in the US accounts for 780 Trillion Btu/year of primary energy use, with over half of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. A commercial absorption heat pump could achieve a level of savings much higher than possible by conversion to the best available non-heat-pump gas fired alternatives (instantaneous condensing). The ammonia-water system has the added advantage of zero Global Warming Potential and Ozone Depletion Potential. This seminar presents the development of a practical absorption heat pump cycle with laboratory-measured performance metrics, outlines potential installation layouts, and presents the economic case for adoption in commercial buildings.

2  Using Double and Triple Lift Single Stage Absorption to Save Energy

Doug Davis, Broad USA

Utilizing low grade thermal energy and hot water for cooling is a great application for Double and Triple Lift absorbers.  This presentation will cover a new Tire Plant in Tennessee that will use 185-131 F hot water to produce 300 tons of cooling.  Currently there is a dearth of general understanding of what a double or triple lift unit is and therefore not many applications to date in North America.  Traditional and well know single stage absorber cannot use hot water below 190F typically.

3  Absorption Heat Pumps for District Heating Applications

Rajesh Dixit, Johnson Controls, Inc.
Absorption heat pumps can be used for generating medium temp hot water (up to 195F) for district heating applications using a low grade waste heat source and a high grade heat source. With about 40% of heat coming from a very low grade source, which otherwise would be rejected to atmosphere, the coefficient of performance is about 1.7 and the economics becomes quite attractive. This source could be geothermal heat or process heat or even a condenser water loop by bypassing a cooling tower. Heat pumps have also been successfully utilized in waste to energy plants.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 5
Recent Developments with Windows

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Marilyn Listvan, Ph.D., Listvan & Assoc., Consulting
As buildings continue to strive to reduce energy consumption we must look at building fenestration to minimize building heat loss and heat gain. This session evaluates options to improve window u-factor and solar heat gain while comparing occupant satisfaction based on comfort, control and visibility. This session also discusses a method for determining cost effective building envelopes for passive house applications, including glazing, insulation and window to wall ratio.

1.00  Benefits of Interior Installed High Performance Insulating Glass for Commercial Retrofit Applications: A Case Study (ST-16-C012)

Tracy Rogers
Buildings account for roughly 40 percent of all energy consumption in the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).  As a result, improving the energy efficiency of buildings should be a top priority for building owners, design professionals, utility companies, allied industries, the federal government, and cities across the country. These diverse groups are working not just to build efficient new construction, but also to improve aging properties through energy retrofits.

Energy retrofits for commercial buildings focus on installing high-efficiency boilers, motors, and lighting.  However, efficiency gains from equipment can be offset by occupant discomfort due to inefficient windows, which can account for 25 percent of a typical building’s heating load in cold climates and 50 percent of the cooling load in warm climates, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Because equipment is sized to service a specific building’s needs, improving a building’s envelope should be addressed first, so that smaller equipment can be specified, saving on the upfront and ongoing costs.

A variety of options exist for improving the energy performance of existing commercial glazing systems including: Application of interior window films – solar heat gain. Complete window rip-out and replacement – solar heat gain and improved U-factor. Interior commercial storm windows - improved U-factor. Interior installed Low-E retrofit insulating glass unit - solar heat gain and improved U-factor

Each alternative has specific performance benefits and associated cost and convenience implications.  Solar heat gain is a primary problem with most commercial buildings having lower performance, single-glazing, regardless of climate zone.  This leads to increased cooling loads, larger sizing of HVAC equipment, higher energy costs and lower occupancy comfort levels.  Any improvement in the glazing system should incorporate technology to reduce the impact of solar heat gain through the use of high performance low-e coatings.  Concurrently for heating dominant climate zones, a substantial reduction in U-factor acts in parallel to reduce HVAC demand for heating, reduces energy costs and improve occupancy comfort levels.

This paper compares the performance benefits, cost implications and occupancy comfort factors for each of these systems with a focus on the advantages of an interior installed low-e retrofit insulating glass unit.  Such a system has been demonstrated to provide the full benefits of a rip-out and replacement at approximately 40% of the installed cost.  It includes independent case study energy analysis, installation and cost comparison, testimonial on occupancy comfort and sustainability attributes.

2.00  Occupants' Preferences and Satisfaction with the Visual Environment in Perimeter Zone Offices: A Field Study in a Building with Advanced Technology (ST-16-C013)

Seyed Amir Sadeghi, Purdue University
As a result of architectural trends, technological advances and increasing focus on energy efficiency, buildings with high performance envelope and HVAC systems, large window-to-wall ratio, motorized window shades, smart lighting controls and Building Automation Systems (BAS) have found their way into the market. With a focus on this building type and dynamic environments such as offices in perimeter zones, this paper presents results of a long-term field study with a large number of human test-subjects, aiming to advance our understanding of (a) occupants’ interactions with shading and electric lighting control systems; and (b) their preferences and satisfaction with the visual environment.

To investigate the impact of  environmental control on occupants’ comfort, satisfaction level and subjective productivity, four identical side-by-side offices with different control setups and interfaces, ranging from fully automated to fully manual and from low-level of accessibility (wall switches) to high-level of accessibility (remote controllers or modular web interfaces) were selected for the purpose of this study. The experimental study includes monitoring of physical variables, actuation and operating status of building systems and online surveys of occupants’ perception of environmental variables as well as their personal characteristics and attributes.

Compared to previous studies conducted in buildings with non-motorized blinds and artificial lights without dimming options, our results show substantial differences in dynamics and frequency of human-shading and –electric lighting interactions for buildings equipped with this advanced technology. Moreover, it was found that comfort with amount of light and visual conditions, satisfaction with window view, and subjective productivity are all maximized in offices with manual control setups and occupants are comfortable with a wide range of indoor illuminance when they have control over their environment. These results also demonstrate occupants’ strong preference for customized indoor climate and the outcomes support the development of personalized controls, which will be discussed in the paper.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 6
Latest Technologies in Air-to-Air Energy Recovery

Fundamentals and Applications
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Ronnie Moffitt, P.E., Trane
Technical Committee: 05.05 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery
Total energy recovery devices transfer both temperature and moisture between the airstreams. Two types of these newer technologies are membrane exchangers and liquid desiccant systems. This session covers the science of membrane exchangers and how they transfer water vapor and heat. It also reviews a liquid desiccant system and how this too can be used to transfer water vapor and heat between exhaust and outside airstreams.

1  Science of Polymeric Membranes Used in Energy Recovery

Ryan Huizing, P.Eng., dPoint Technologies
Energy recovery ventilation (ERV) is an emerging and growing application for polymeric membranes used in energy efficient building ventilation systems. In these enthalpy exchange devices, heat and moisture are transported through a membrane which separates fresh supply air streams and building exhaust air streams.  Membranes for these devices must have high water vapor permeance and good selectivity of water vapour over indoor air contaminants. They must be robust to withstand temperature and humidity cycling, condensation, and freezing. This presentation will discuss the current state of membranes for sensible and latent transfer as well as ongoing membrane research, development and testing.

2  Liquid Desiccant Total Enthalpy Recovery

Mark Piegay, Alfa Laval - Kathabar
Liquid desiccant energy recovery systems exchange temperature and humidity between the building exhaust air and the outside makeup air via an energy transfer solution. Liquid desiccant energy recovery systems have many features that building owners will find attractive. In addition to energy savings, the system features include a flexible design, winter humidification, no microbiological cross contamination, and improved IAQ via the biocidal desiccant solution.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Conference Paper Session 6
Diverse HVAC Applications

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Neil P. Leslie, P.E., Gas Technology Institute
Unique facilities often require unusual design strategies in order to achieve acceptable IAQ and energy efficiency. This session reviews three distinctive uses of CHP, liquid-to-air heat exchange and demand control ventilation to accomplish the HVAC goals in three unique applications.

1  Practical Approach and Method of Demand Control Ventilation in an Animal Facility with 50% HVAC Energy Saving (ST-16-C014)

Masaya Ishihara, Azbil Corporation Building Systems Company
In this presentation, valuable information about demand control ventilation (DCV) in laboratory animal facilities will be shown as stated below. 1) Practical approach and method of DCV by indoor air quality (IAQ) sensing, 2) Actual trend graphs of IAQ sensing and ventilation rates which are synchronized with animal biorhythm (circadian rhythm) and 3) Successful results of saving HVAC energy by reducing total ventilation.

 In a major Japanese laboratory animal facility, a multiplexed IAQ sensing system which continually measures certain types of IAQ values at multiple locations was installed, and VAV control which varies ventilation rates based on those IAQ measurements was implemented. Because it was a first trial of automated DCV in Japan, target areas were confined to two (one rodents’ and one primates’) animal holding rooms, and a step-by-step approach was taken as follows. 1) In order to find out the correlation between ventilation rates and IAQ values, ventilation rates was changed manually (6, 9, 12, 15 ACH for every 2 weeks) with continuing multiplexed IAQ sensing. 2) Based on the results of the foregoing analysis, automated DCV in accordance with concentration differences between supply and room (or room exhaust) air was implemented. The DCV was tried under the conditions of three series of set points (“low”, “middle” and “high”). In the case of “low” set points, ACH varied synchronized with animal biorhythm (circadian rhythm) and total ventilation was saved by 20.6-27.5%. On the other hand, in the case of “high” set points, ACH almost did NOT increase except during the in-room activity (e.g., cage changing or room cleaning) and total ventilation was saved by 47.5-48.7%

2  Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning for Underground Science Facility (ST-16-C015)

Cillian Brown
Deepak Kandra, P.E., Arup
Richard Potter, P.E., Arup
The safe and effective operation of a science facility deep underground poses a number of ventilation and cooling challenges. Ventilation air must be delivered from the surface to the occupied space and conditioned to meet the space requirements. Exhaust air and heat generated by the facility and its supporting infrastructure must be removed from the underground spaces and rejected back to the surface. The mechanical design must overcome these challenges while limiting its footprint given the high cost of underground excavation.

This paper will present the details of the mechanical ventilation and cooling design for a science facility located 4,850 ft underground in a former gold mine. The site will be comprised of 3 large caverns and a network of tunnels to be excavated over 6 phases. The installation of airside and waterside equipment will take place as the excavation proceeds posing operational challenges in meeting the space requirements. Mine ventilation air will be cooled and supplied to the experiment caverns through water cooled air handling units picking up heat from the spaces. Exhaust fans remove air from the space meeting the air change requirement and deliver the air to an underground spray chamber. The spray chamber is an excavated space where condenser water from the chiller is sprayed into the exhaust airstream. The exhaust airstream picks up heat from the sprayed water and returns to the surface through a vertical borehole while cooled condenser water returns to the chillers.

The paper also presents the constructability considerations which are a result of the phased excavation and operation of the facility. The mechanical design is flexible to limit the incremental changes between phases while maximizing the use of the excavated space and minimizing the client’s costs.

3  Decreasing the Primary Energy Demand in the Industrial Sector By Modifying and Linking the Energy Flows in a Plastic Factory (ST-16-C016)

Long Phan, Florida International University
Johannes Wagner, University of Kassel
Heiko Dunkelberg
Conrad Hannen
Alexander Schluter
Jens Hesselbach
Cheng-Xian Lin, Ph.D., Florida International University
Energy efficiency in the industrial processes  has great potential to reduce the energy demand, as well as green house gases emission, which is the most concerned topic in the gobal warming debate. In fact, the improvement of energy efficiency and an intelligent linkage of the energy consumer, distribution, storage, and energy supply are the keys to lower the energy consumption in the industry. In this paper, the research is focused on the study of these combinations in the industry via a plastic factory case study at different climate conditions. The plastic processing industry uses mainly electric power for their machines and facilities. Especially, plastic products for the food and pharmaceutical sector requires significant demands on air temperature and humidity control. This leads to high energy requirements on the power supply system. In order to obtain flexibitlity in using machines from many different energy sources such as CHP processes, the burning of gas, or electrical grid, the electrical heating method is changed to thermal oil heating in many production machines. The reconstruction of many molding machines, building techonolgy, and the thermal grids in the plastic factory enhances the use of heat generated by a CHP unit. In addition, by changing the refrigeration supply from a compression to an absorption chiller, the use of the heat is increased even further. From a case study presented, the primary energy demand is lowered by up to 57 percent. The study shows the energy savings potential for a manufacturing company located in three different locations: in Germany, Canada and the USA.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 7
Building Water Systems: Issues and Insights from Outbreaks of Legionnaires' Disease

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Joshua Ince, P.Eng., Eldon Water Inc
Technical Committee: 03.06 Water Treatment
This session delves into understanding issues that are associated with recent and past outbreaks. It dispels popular myths of Legionella bacteria and Legionnaires' Disease, while introducing insights to aid system designers, facility managers and public health inspectors to collectively lower the risk of Legionella amplification within building water systems. Improved understanding of this disease's root causes will allow the usage of appropriate legislation that is effective in reducing human exposure to Legionella. The expert panel answers questions regarding lessons learned from first-hand outbreak investigation experience, issues with conflicting code requirements and actions required to minimize incidence of Legionnaires' disease.

1  Why Legionella Is a Problem in Building Water Systems: Keys to Prevention

Janet Stout, Ph.D., Special Pathogens Laboratory

A short presentation on why Legionella is a problem in building water systems, from a microbiological point of view, and what specific actions prevent the bacteria from amplifying.

2  Lessons Learned from Potable Water Outbreak Investigations: Issues with Public Health and Plumbing Codes

Tim Keane, Legionella Risk Management Inc.
This presentation will review past outbreak situations and what the investigations revealed.  Understanding how current plumbing codes and inspection/enforcement affects the success of controlling the problem.

3  Policy Consequences of Outbreaks: Who Got It Right?

Sarah Ferrari, Evapco Inc
A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the Bronx in 2015 prompted NYC to enact law and

NYS to propose emergency regulations on the registration and maintenance of cooling towers. 

This paper describes the fundamental characteristics of airborne vs. waterborne outbreaks and

discusses the Bronx outbreak from those perspectives.  Ultimately a case is made that these new

regulations will not have a measurable impact on reducing the incidence of Legionellosis.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Conference Paper Session 7
Examples of Smart Controls

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Michael Sherber, P.Eng., The Firma Group, Inc.
Smart (or smarter) control systems play an increasingly important role in optimizing all aspects of an HVAC system. This session examines four different uses of smart controls to substantially improve the operation of fan systems, valve operation, a district cooling system and an aquifer thermal energy storage system.

1  Demonstration of Energy Saving and Control Performance of Tiered Trim and Respond Method in AHU Static Pressure Reset (ST-16-C017)

Xiaohui (Joe) Zhou, Ph.D., P.E., Iowa Energy Center
Both the ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards require AHU supply duct pressure setpoints on variable-air-volume (VAV) systems with direct digital controls (DDC) be reset at the zone level. While many different implementation methods have been proposed, the Trim and Respond (TR) method is one of the more popular strategies. Although the TR methods are popular many are difficult to successfully implement due to issues maintaining stable control, complexity of tuning parameters, or sacrificed zone level comfort. A newer “Tiered Trim and Respond” (TTR) strategy has improved control stability, increased response time and eased implementation in the field compared to the traditional TR method, while achieving similar fan energy savings. The TTR method recognizes that the instability of the Trim and Respond (TR) methods is often caused by targeting the system’s maximum damper position at nearly 100% open. At these extreme positions the system is most sensitive to disturbances or load changes and therefore stable control is difficult. The TTR method compares the maximum VAV damper command or position value to three different tiers of high/low thresholds, and responds by varying the trim and respond rates to adjust the static pressure set points. The targeted average maximum VAV damper value is lowered from the traditionally recommended 95% or 98% open position to a lessor range of 80% to 90% open. The TTR method pushes the setpoints slightly off the “ideal static pressure curve”, but provides more stable system control while maintaining a quick response to load changes. The TTR method is being implemented in a year-long demonstration at five different building sites in various building types and usage on four different building automation systems. Preliminary demonstration results show that among seven AHUs fan energy savings vary from 6% ~ 47% with the TTR compared their normal or existing fixed static pressure control setup.  In four of the RTUs the fan energy savings are 33% to 36%. Additionally, two of the demonstration AHUs utilize two implementations of Trim and Respond strategies. The TTR method is more responsive to load changes and maintains better indoor air quality while using a similar amount of fan energy. This paper describes the TTR methodology, the five demonstration sites and their direct digital systems, the preliminary energy savings compared to fixed static pressure control, and control performance characteristics compared to two different TR methods.

2  Smart Buildings Model Predictive Control of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System (ST-16-C018)

Wim Zeiler, Eindhoven University of Technology
Jasper Hoving
Gert Boxem, TU Eindhoven
A rapidly growing amount of office buildings in the Netherlands is using an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system. An ATES system uses a well pump to extract cold groundwater for cooling. The returned warm water is injected and stored in a second well. During winter this warm water is used for heating and the returned cold water is injected again in the first well. An optimal functioning ATES system can significantly reduce energy use and CO2emissions of an office building. An essential condition for optimal ATES operation is the thermal balance of the system. Office buildings typically store much more heat than cold, causing the entire underground slowly to heat up and causing cooling capacity problems on the long term. This is compensated by using cold outdoor air to store additional cold during the winter, called regeneration. In this research a methods were evaluated to keep the thermal storage in balance Model Predictive Control (MPC) is used to control the amount of regenerated cold to maintain the ATES balance. The key element in the method is the reference model to calculate the expected stored amount and use as model for MPC. A reference model was constructed based on a case study building and it contains three main blocks: ATES, Heating/Ventilation/Air-conditioning (HVAC) and load simulation. For the ATES system a lightweight finite element simulation method is developed, based on an axisymmetric grid. An additional method was developed to reconstruct the injected water temperatures and volumes, because these were not measured in the case study installation. The HVAC and load simulation models are based on logged building management system (BMS) data. The use of BMS data has the large advantage that models are easily configured and can automatically adjust to changes in the building. Using MPC it was possible to keep the ATES in balance over a simulated 20 years period. By using a slight cold surplus as target, the effect of exceptionally warm winters is minimal and extraction temperatures are very constant. For the case study building it can be concluded that MPC, using the developed reference model, is capable of automatically maintaining the ATES balance. Because the case study building type and size is comparable to the majority of the new Dutch office buildings, it is expected that large parts of the method are universally applicable.

3  Minimizing Primary Energy Consumption in District Cooling System: A Showcase of the Impact of Online Optimization Control (ST-16-C019)

Kenichi Matsuoka, CEng, Azbil corporation

Khin Zaw, Ph.D.
District cooling system (DCS) consists of chillers, cooling towers and pumps, and is widely used owing to high energy efficiency. However, due to higher energy costs and greenhouse gas emission issues, more energy-efficient total plant operation, not only the chiller system but also the cooling water system, is required to reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this report, we will present real-time online optimization control, to minimize the energy consumption, in district cooling plants.  As well as the theoretical background for real-time online optimization control methodology, the report contains examples of successful application including the reduction in primary energy consumption rates. Herein, the objective function of the optimization is to minimize the primary energy consumption rate whilst satisfying chilled water demand, and the optimization controls are constructed and realized by:  Optimum Chiller control, Optimum cooling tower control, Optimum cooling water pump control, Optimum primary pump control and Optimum secondary pump control. The effectiveness of the real-time online optimization control methodology and the actual reduction of the primary energy consumption by applying the optimization are shown based on the result of operation data.

4  Improving Valve Operation Using Cascade Control in Single Zone Air Handling Units (ST-16-C020)

Kaustubh Phalak, University of Miami
Gang Wang, P.E., University of Miami
Jose Varona
Single zone (SZ) air handling units (AHU) are widely applied in a large conditioned spaces. A SZ AHU typically consists of a chilled water cooling coil, a hot water heating coil and a supply fan. For a constant volume (CV) SZ AHU or variable air volume (VAV) SZ AHU operating at a minimum airflow, the control valve of either the cooling coil or heating coil is modulated to vary the supply air temperature and consequently control space air temperature. Traditionally, a single control loop is applied to modulate the control valve directly based on the space air temperature. The traditional control is simplistic in nature however, suffers significant drawbacks. Due to the thermal capacity of both the water in the coils and the air in the conditioned space, the system often becomes unstable if the controller is not well tuned. On the other hand, cascade control makes the control system more adaptive and robust. A cascade control can be applied to SZ AHU in order to stabilize the system. The primary controller reads the room air temperature and determines the required supply air temperature for secondary controller which then controls the heating/cooling coil valve. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the stability of the cascade control method in SZ AHU system, theoretically and experimentally. First a theoretical model of the single zone AHU system with transfer functions is developed and root-locus analysis is performed with MATLAB. Then the experiment is conducted on a SZ AHU to evaluate the system performance using the traditional and cascade control respectively. The simulation and experiment results shows the cascade control stabilizes the system operation.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 8
Comfort Challenges in Commercial Kitchens

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Russell Robison, Gaylord Industries
Technical Committee: 05.10 Kitchen Ventilation
CoSponsor: 04.01 Load Calculation Data and Procedures
With today’s intense focus on energy efficiency in our commercial buildings, kitchens present perhaps the greatest challenge of all. Balancing the most energy intense segment of our buildings with the oftentimes overlooked comfort of our kitchens must be a focus moving forward. This seminar presents the findings illustrating some of the current obstacles in this area and what our community is doing to bring back the balance.

1  Thermal Comfort in Commercial Kitchens: a Real-World Perspective!

Donald Fisher, P.Eng., Fisher Consultants
The restaurant industry in the United States is the second largest private-sector employer with a workforce of nearly 13 million. And while engineers designing HVAC systems for foodservice facilities recognize the importance of thermal comfort, the extent to which this design goal has been compromised has not been well documented by ASHRAE. This information gap became the catalyst for RP-1469, “Thermal Comfort in Commercial Kitchens.” The study focused on documenting the thermal environment, both winter and summer, in 100 food service facilities. Key findings of this study are presented in context with the author’s 40-year experience in commercial foodservice.

2  Latent and Sensible Loads in Commercial Kitchens and Dishrooms

Richard Swierczyna, Frontier Energy / Food Service Technology Center
Commercial kitchens and dishrooms house the equipment that generate the most intensive concentrations of sensible, latent and moisture loads in the commercial foodservice sector.  This presentation will include recent ASHRAE and industry data, and design recommendations for the the sensible, latent and moisture loads from kitchen equipment such as dishwashers, griddles, fryers, ovens and countertop appliances.

3  Considering Additional Loads Associated with Un-Tempered Kitchen Makeup Air

Jimmy Sandusky, Halton Company
Balancing energy efficiency, hood performance and thermal comfort is a difficult task for the commercial kitchen HVAC designer.  The need for makeup air in a commercial kitchen is well understood, but delivery strategies can vary widely.  Supplying un-tempered air at or near the kitchen hood is a common strategy and is a prescriptive option for California Title 24 compliance.  Although sometimes suitable in mild climates, un-tempered air can add loads that must be accounted for in the HVAC design.  This seminar presents this information for a variety of climate zones and best practice strategies for makeup air delivery.

4  Dew Point Designs for Commercial Kitchens

Greg DuChane, Oregon State University
ASHRAE 1449 RP reported that the majority of commercial kitchens are uncomfortable. Operating temperatures of 85⁰ to 90 ⁰F were reported for many kitchens. At these temperatures control of space humidity is critical to staff comfort. Kitchen HVAC designs must include consideration of the water used in many cooking and cleaning operations and consider the additional moisture that may be supplied thru unconditioned MUA systems in order to properly address kitchen comfort. This presentation will evaluate how HVAC designers may use dew point designs to improve staff comfort and safety in commercial kitchens.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 9
Gender Diversity:  Will ASHRAE Lead or Lag?

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Chris Gray, Ph.D., P.E., Georgia Power Company
Technical Committee: 01.07 Business, Management & General Legal Education
Sponsor: Women in ASHRAE, YEA
While the demographics of our industry are changing, there are still many groups of people that are underrepresented in ASHRAE. This seminar looks into how unconscious bias has affected our decision-making process over the years and how that has caused our industry to develop to its current make-up. A data analysis of ASHRAE’s membership is discussed and compared to membership data from our partner organizations in the built environment. The seminar discusses the significant benefits of changing these demographics and including personal accounts of diversity issues and successes in the workplace.

1  Beyond the Comfort Zone: Unconscious Bias for the Analytical Mind

Erin McConahey, P.E., Arup
Understanding why unconscious bias exists and how it affects our decision-making process is a key element of many successful  Diversity and Inclusion programs.  Recent research allows us to see how unconscious bias is “wired” into our brains.  Each of us has some personal collection of unconscious biases; and as leaders it is important that we become aware of our own biases so that we can choose to make well-considered decisions.  Come learn about the most common biases present in technical fields in the culture of North America and some of the best practices in building an inclusive environment in your workplace.

2  Women in ASHRAE, By the Numbers

Jessica Mangler, P.E., Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
The Women in ASHRAE affinity group is a small but vocal group and they are starting a movement to encourage the retention of women in the built environment. This presentation will analyze ASHRAE membership data and examine the percentage of women involved in standing committees, technical committees, and ASHRAE as a whole with feedback from a survey of ASHRAE’s female members. Then presentation will take the analysis a step further and compare ASHRAE’s female membership to the female membership in other partner organizations. Conclusions will be drawn about how to increase female participation numbers and benefits of encouraging this movement.

3  Personal Experiences of Diversity in the Workplace and in Your ASHRAE Chapter

Jennifer E. Leach, P.E., Cummins-Wagner Co, Inc.
Personal stories are always the most touching because they are “personal”. This presentation will be highlighting some real life stories, good and bad, and then some initiative that can be implemented in your workplace and in your ASHRAE home chapter.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 10
Performance Monitoring and Systems Testing Per ASHRAE Standards 184, 30 and the 41 Series

Fundamentals and Applications
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Fred Betz, P.E., Hall Consultants, LLC
Technical Committee: 08.02 Centrifugal Machines
In order to be able to evaluate and maintain the efficiency of a chilled water system, you must know how to measure the many variables for comparing the operation. ASHRAE has developed standard methods of testing field performance and test stand performance of liquid chilling equipment and systems. These Standards are Standard 184 and 30. The 41 Series of Standards describes methods for testing system variables such as liquid and airflow, temperature and humidity. The presenters in this seminar describe these Standards and their development and use.

1  ASHRAE Standard 30

Phillip Johnson, P.E., McQuay International
Publication of Standard 30, Method of Testing for Liquid Chilling Packages, is pending a second public review period. Significant changes have been made to this method of test (MOT) for chillers that was last published in 1995.  A summary overview will guide users through the testing requirements.

2  ASHRAE Standard 184

Robert Blanton, P.E., Johnson Controls Inc
ASHRAE Standard 184 is the Method of Test for Field Performance of Liquid-Chilling Systems.  It has been under development and is now in the final stages and public review before being published later this year. This Standard differs from Standard 30 in that it applies to chillers in their actual field installation and operation rather than the "bench" testing done under Standard 30.  This speaker will present an overview of this Standard that will be valuable to system Owners, Engineers, and Designers.

3  41 Series Standards

Richard Hall, Hall Consultants, LLC
Most ASHRAE members may not be aware of ten basic measurement standards beginning with Standard 41.1, Standard for Temperature Measurement, and including 41.2 through 41.11 standards for measuring pressure, airflow, air velocity, humidity, gas flow, liquid flow, refrigerant flow, and power. This presenter describes the utility of each of these standards for application to product testing and for incorporating into other ASHRAE testing standards.  Revised versions of all of these standards have been published since 2013 and are current and useful.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 11
Smart Grid in the Heartland: See What Happens Next

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Richard Hackner, P.E., GDS Associates
Technical Committee: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
This seminar introduces ASHRAE members to the rapidly developing world of smart grid implementation by utilities and others in the Midwest. Building owners, operators and designers will need to know what options and opportunities they will have in the not too distant future to manage and control their energy use and costs. The seminar also discusses what resources will be available for them in the future.

1.00  Ameren Smart Grid Implementation

Bruno Stopka
As an energy delivery public utility, Ameren is responsible for the grid components that carry power to your  business. We've been incorporating smart grid improvements into the distribution system for years - with a focus on improving reliability and reducing outages. As part of our infrastructure improvements, we will be implementing even more projects, including: advanced customer meters, automated switches and controls, and training for our employees to ensure that electric and gas service is there when needed. The presentation will highlight where Ameren stands in the deployment of smart grid technology and what that means for building owners, operators and designers.

2.00  Demand Response through Advanced Lighting Controls

Scott Schuetter, P.E., Seventhwave
Task tuning is an innovative approach to lighting control in commercial buildings that is growing in popularity. It has the potential to save energy without decreasing occupant satisfaction because many commercial spaces are over lit. More widespread adoption of dimmable ballasts and LED lighting would create more opportunities to apply this simple control strategy that may help satisfy a client’s efficiency goals. In addition, the combination of smart grids and increasingly sophisticated lighting controls opens up the possibilities of using this strategy for demand response and energy cost management. We will define proper task tuning techniques and other best practices.

3.00  Smart Grid Implementation in Michigan

Glenn Remington, CMS Energy
Consumers Energy’s Smart Energy Program will allow for an enhanced and exciting level of communication between our company and our customers. Installations for residential customers began in late 2012 and commercial and industrial customer smart meter upgrades began in early 2015 and continue through 2017. In the future, customers will also have the ability to sign up for money saving programs. This presentation highlights opportunities and next steps for the utility and its customers through smart grid implementation.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 12
The ABCs of UVC

HVAC Systems and Equipment
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Sam Guzman, American Ultraviolet Company
Technical Committee: 02.09 Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment
This session covers the following UVC related topics: Why use UVC and how does UVC work? Designing/engineering a proper UVC system for your HVAC unit (understanding the levels of UVC dose necessary for different Pathogens), installation and commissioning a UVC system, and Operation & Maintenance.

1  Design Understanding the Levels of UVC Dose Necessary for Different Pathogens

Ashish Mathur, Ph.D., UVDI
The section will be a discussion of the different UVC applications (static and dynamic) in an HVAC unit and a review of the current "K" values or required UVC dosages associated with the various pathogens one may target in an HVAC application.

2  Operation and Maintenance of a UVC System

Scott Sherwood, Eco Care Corporation
This section will cover the proper operation and maintenance associated with a UVC system installed in an HVAC unit.  Some of the information that will be shared includes: lamp life, intensity monitoring, safety considerations, contact plate and swab testing, and UV lamp array positioning.

3  Commissioning a UVC System in an HVAC Unit

David Skelton, EvergreenUV
The section discusses the extra steps involved when commissioning a UVC system designed for use in an HVAC system.  The speaker will discuss the benefits of the commissioning process, the necessary steps in commissioning a system, and who should perform the commissioning process.

12:30 PM-1:30 PM
Forum 1
Behind the Curtain: A Discussion About How to Submit a Program, Mini-Track or Track Suggestion for the ASHRAE Biannual Conferences

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Jon Cohen, ChemTreat, Inc.
Technical Committee: Conferences and Expositions Committee
The Conference and Expositions Committee is responsible for selecting the technical programs for the Biannual ASHRAE Conferences. If you have had difficulty submitting a program in the past, have a great track suggestion for a future conference, or just have questions on the process, please join us for a look into our selection process and learn how technical committees and members alike can proactively support the Technical Program. Speakers include Sarah Maston, CEC Chair; Jon Cohen, CEC Vice Chair; and Dave Claridge, incoming CEC Chair.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Technical Paper Session 1
Airflow Measurements and Predictions

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Paul Turnbull, Siemens Building Technologies, Inc.
Technical Committee: 05.06 Control of Fire and Smoke
Air velocity can impact a number of situations including the minimum duct wall thickness required for handling the reduced commercial kitchen exhaust velocity now allowed by NFPA 96. The results of an important CFD study on the impact of make-up air velocity used to control smoke in atriums is reported. Full scale fire tests show the influence of pressure compensating systems for stairwells. The results of a CFD study on ventilated patient isolation rooms show that portions of a room are not well ventilated when the standard ventilation rate is used. A simpler and more precise method has been developed to predict the necessary separation distance between a variety of exhaust configurations and make-up air inlets.

1.00  Analyzing the Performance of a Kitchen Exhaust Air Duct with Regards to Recent Standards: A CFD/Thermal Stress Simulation (ST-16-001)

Ali M. Hasan, CEng, KEO International Consulting Engineers
Recent standards have defined a lower minimum air velocity in kitchen exhaust air ducts. While the aim remains in place to maintain an acceptable in duct air velocity and expel exhaust air-borne particles or fluids towards filters/exhaust outlet. Steel ducts are usually specified to a standard steel gauge thickness, capable of handling the extreme load conditions of high temperatures, possible corrosive conditions, and negative pressure levels within exhaust duct. This paper simulates a typical kitchen exhaust air duct performing under extreme temperature conditions and the low air duct velocities. Lower exhaust air velocities should correspond to lower in duct negative pressure values and therefore, possibly a reduction in steel duct wall thickness.
A CFD/thermals tress analysis was carried out under the most extreme load conditions specified under recently issued standards. This analysis has demonstrated that a lower steel duct thickness is more than sufficient than what is specified in recent standards, and therefore, a lower steel thickness gauge can be used. Provided a comprehensive simulation is carried out demonstrating that the reduced exhaust duct sheet thickness is well within the steel duct mechanical material properties as explained in this paper.

2.00  A CFD Study to Identify Methods to Increase Maximum Velocity of Make-up Air for Atrium Smoke Control (RP-1600) (ST-16-002)

James Milke, Ph.D., P.E., University of Maryland
Christine Pongratz
Arnaud Trouve
The primary purpose of this study is to develop engineering methods to assess the impact of increased make-up air velocity in atria. The current restriction defined by NFPA 92 states that make-up air must not exceed 1.02 m/s (200 fpm) during the operation of a mechanical smoke exhaust system. This limitation not only limits creative and aesthetic atria designs but may also represent a significant cost. The present study analyzes the effect of make-up air injected by a variety of vent sizes at elevations at or below the limiting elevation of the flame through numerical simulations. This study focuses on identifying worst-case scenarios for the interaction of make-up air with an axisymmetric plume, by modeling multiple configurations, observing the results, and adapting further simulations to elicit the most extreme cases. A mass flow rate diagnostic is used to assess the increase in entrainment, i.e. smoke production. This mass flow diagnostic is developed to provide a comparative analysis, assessing the increase in the rate of smoke production with a specified make-up air velocity with that produced with no mechanical make-up air. The proportional increase in entrainment is defined as an alpha factor. The most significant smoke production increase and smoke layer stabilization descent is associated with the 1 MW fire, when lesser increases observed for the 2.5 MW and 5 MW fires. As the make-up air is introduced further from the edge of the flame, the apparent effect of the airflow velocity is reduced.

3.00  Performance of Stairwell Pressurization System with Open Stairwell Doors (RP-1447) (ST-16-003)

Yoon Ko, Ph.D., National Research Council Canada
Gary Lougheed, Ph.D.
The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) conducted full-scale fire experiments to investigate whether pressure compensating systems are needed to maintain tenable conditions within pressurized stairwells. Ten tests were conducted in the NRC 10-storey test facility with the stairwell in the facility pressurized. The tests were conducted with the stairwell door on the fire floor closed and selected stairwell doors on the other floors open. Two fire scenarios with a shielded sprinklered fire and non-sprinklered fire were tested with varying number and location of open stairwell doors. Tenability analyses were conducted with experimental test results to investigate the performance of pressurized stairwell with and without pressure compensating systems. Without compensating for pressure losses, the pressure difference across the stairwell door on the fire floor decreased considerably with open stairwell doors. However, a non-compensated stairwell remained tenable for 30 minutes as long as the door on the fire floor was closed both for the shielded sprinklered fire and the non-sprinklered fire scenarios. It is concluded that if the base pressurization system meets the requirement of the design pressure difference with a proper arrangement of air injection points, the stairwell remained tenable as long as the door on the fire floor is closed for both sprinklered and non-sprinkled fire scenarios used in the tests.

4.00  Assessing Effectiveness of Ceiling Ventilated Mock Airborne Infection Isolation Room in Preventing Hospital Acquired Influenza Transmission to Health-Care Workers (GIA 15-16) (ST-16-004)

Deepthi Sharan Thatiparti, University of Cincinnati
Urmila Ghia, Ph.D., University of Cincinnati
Kenneth R. Mead, Ph.D., P.E., CDC- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Exposure to airborne influenza from patient’s cough and exhaled air causes potential flu virus transmission to the persons located nearby. Flu virus can be transmitted through air by patient’s cough creating aerosols containing flu virus. Hospital acquired influenza is a major airborne disease that occurs to health care workers (HCW).

The present study examines the air flow patterns and influenza-infected cough aerosol transport behavior in a ceiling-ventilated mock AIIR and its effectiveness in mitigating HCW’s exposure to airborne infection. The Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of the air flow patterns and the flu virus dispersal behavior in a Mock AIIR is conducted using the room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to that of a traditional ceiling mounted ventilation arrangement observed in existing hospitals. The measured data showed that ventilation rates for the AIIR is about 12 ACH (Air changes per hour). However, the numerical results revealed incomplete air mixing, and that not all of the room air was changed 12 times per hour. Two life-sized breathing human models were used to simulate a source patient and a receiving HCW. A patient-cough cycle is introduced into the simulation, and the AI dispersal is tracked in time using a multi-phase flow simulation approach.

5.00  Simplified Procedure for Calculating Exhaust/Intake Separation Distances (RP-1635) (ST-16-005)

Ronald Petersen, Ph.D., CPP Inc.
Jared Ritter, CPP Wind Engineering and Air Quality Consultants
This research was sponsored by ASHRAE Technical Committee (TC) 4.3. The purpose of this Research Project is to provide a simple, yet accurate procedure for calculating the minimum distance required between the outlet of an exhaust system and the outdoor air intake to a ventilation system to avoid re-entrainment of exhaust gases. The new procedure addresses the technical deficiencies in the simplified equations and tables that are currently in Standard 62.1-2013 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality and model building codes. This new procedure makes use of the knowledge provided in Chapter 45 of the 2015 ASHRAE Handbook—Applications, and was tested against various physical modeling and full-scale studies. The study demonstrates that the new method is more accurate than the existing Standard 62.1 equation which under-predicts and over-predicts observed dilution more frequently than the new method. In addition, the new method accounts for the following additional important variables: stack height, wind speed and hidden versus visible intakes. The new method also has theoretically justified procedures for addressing heated exhaust, louvered exhaust, capped heated exhaust and horizontal exhaust that is pointed away from the intake.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Conference Paper Session 8
System Design, Diagnostics and Operation

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
This session discusses different methods to evaluate fault readings within a building HVAC system. The first study evaluates water and air system faults with system head and power to minimize computational down time, while another looks at a hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP) for the whole building and a third study looks at incorporating fundamental psychometric equations in the DDC control logic to locate defective sensors. Lastly, this session evaluates the importance of ongoing commissioning on smart building systems to help operators maintain energy efficiency.

1  No-Cost Air Conditioning System Diagnostics Using Fundamental Equations and Existing Controls (ST-16-C021)

Maribella Ibarra, P.E.
Building operators can save significant amounts of time by using Direct Digital Control (DDC) system programming logic and by creating concise Building Monitoring System (BMS) screens to troubleshoot heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.  They can also drive down energy costs.  A mature energy efficiency utility has proposed the use of fundamental psychrometric formulas and parameters into DDC systems’ control logic to check sensor accuracy, improve equipment performance, and to verify valve and damper operation.  Relative humidity sensors are used to control humidifiers and dehumidification coils, and have been indirectly used to calculate enthalpy in economizers. The application of fundamental HVAC formulas into the DDC control logic identifies inaccuracies in relative humidity sensors, which, if left uncorrected can result in poor economizer performance, or unnecessary humidification and/or dehumidification. These problems frequently increase the cost of operation of the HVAC equipment. The utility also has applied outdoor air dew point calculations to check sensor performance and to optimize chiller and humidification system performance.  This paper will define dew point under several conditions, describe how it differs from relative humidity, and describe their effects on latent and sensible cooling and heating loads.  It will also present psychrometric facts and how they can be used to check the performance of HVAC systems.  For example, if the chilled water temperature is higher than the entering  air dew point temperature of a cooling coil, the coil will not remove any moisture from the entering air; therefore, the dew point will remain the same.  Programing this logic into the DDC can be done with simple “if” statements, and can be used to identify faulty sensors.  The paper will present a sample programming statement that can be modified to the facility’s DDC system programming language. The paper will also describe how, once the logic statement is entered into the DDC, it is important that the BMS screens are easy to evaluate and thus make it easy for operators to troubleshoot any system performance issues. An example of a fault detection screen for air handling unit economizers and an outdoor air weather station will also be included.

2  Handling Discrepancies in Building Reactive Management Using HAZOP and Diagnosis Analysis (ST-16-C022)

Mahendra Singh, Grenoble-INP
Complexities, with the modern smart buildings are continuously increasing with time. Building automation systems encompass many sensors and controllers to achieve the desired level of comfort. However, in reality it is difficult to achieve the perceived comfort because of different faults, occupant misusages and their consequences. Though, sometimes occupants do not well aware with the origin of different causes and their unusual impact on comfort and cost. In order to fill the gap between expectation or what was planned before and reality, building energy management systems (BEMS) need to be designed in such a way that they will be able to react or advise different reactive actions to the occupants. Considering real time scenarios all major anomalies primarily arises from three main sources: Different failures in buildings including HVAC, Misusage i.e. human irrelevant behaviors and Various unplanned situations related to occupancy and appliances. Above abnormal situations could cause huge penalty over occupant’s comfort and operational cost. Potential faults and their causes need to be identified. Present work considers a hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP) for the whole building system. HAZOP is used to perform a detail analysis of all possible causes of discrepancies in building operation. HAZOP is a qualitative approach but it can be quantified by using “Risk assessment matrix” based on the frequency and severity of faults. According to HAZOP analysis, building facility is divided in different sub-systems and each sub-system is studied in detail. Each sub-system assigned with a variable and deviations from the normal range of these variables are considered as symptoms. Considering the detected symptoms, a global signature table can be computed. However due to presence of non-isolable causes this table is further reduced to observable signature table. To avoid the decision error a minimal set of diagnosis is performed on the basis of difference between computed and observable signatures. Further, all the possible risks are ranked according to their degree of severity and integrated with reactive energy management. Finally, paper will address the application of the developed methodology for an office without HVAC.

3  Evaluation of Fault Detection and Diagnosis Methods for Air and Water Distribution Systems Using Virtual Flow Meters (ST-16-C023)

Koosha Kiamehr, University of Miami
Alejandro Rivas Prieto
Wesley M. Thomas, University of Oklahoma
Gang Wang, P.E., University of Miami
Li Song, Ph.D., P.E., University of Oklahoma
Faults in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems results in excessive energy waste and space comfort issues. In this study, the goal is to identify fan belt slippage and pressure setpoint override faults. These faults can be easily detected based on the correlation of head, flow and power for fans and pumps. However, due to the lack of flow meters in HVAC systems, currently, these faults have to be detected by either model-based or rule-based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) approaches. Model based approaches generally require high computational time, which makes them unsuitable for real time applications.  The rule based approaches use other operating data rather than flow rate and cannot accurately detect these faults. On the other hand, a virtual flow meter technology, which determines flow based on the measured head and power of fans and pumps, makes the flow measurement accurately and economically without the need of physical flow meters. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a FDD method for faults in air and water distribution systsms using the measured head and power along with a virtual flow meter. First, the correlation between power and head and the correlation between the head and flow are derived without and with faults based on fan and pump performance and system curves. Then experiment is conducted to validate develop FDD method by comparing the actual corrections with the fault free correlations. The results show the proposed FDD method can effectively detect these faults.

4  Smart Building Systems Help Maintain the Sustainable Edge of an Award Winning Laboratory (ST-16-C024)

Donald L. Walker, P.E., Newcomb & Boyd
G. Brendan Gardes, P.E.
The paper will be a case study of the New Orleans BioInnovation Center (NOBIC) design, commissioning, controls optimization, and analytic smart building system. NOBIC was awarded the AIA Committee On The Environment (COTE) Top Ten Award at this year's AIA conference for its sustainability features and opeations. In highly sustainable buildings, three main aspects are required. First, the building's design has to support low energy operation. Second, the building must be technically commissioned. Technical commissioning requires testing of all components and sequences with personal verification. Lastly, a highly sustainable building, as with all buildings, will start to drift from optimum operations, and it will start to consume more energy over time. Analytic programs can help maintain operation at optimal levels. Sustainability goals provided the design team with an opportunity to optimize the design without creating major cost additions to the design which would result in cost overruns. Many of the ways the design team lowered energy use was by optimizing systems rather than high inital capital outlays. Technical commissioning verified that the installed systems met the intent of the design team as well as providing a baseline performance of the building that was truly in an optimal condition. Technical commissioning also utilizes the facilities staff in the commissioning process so that they can fully understand the building and design, as well as know how to bring the building back to an optimal state. An analytics/ongoing commissioing program was added to the control system in order to maintain optimal performance. The analytics platform looks at a number of different rules from simple comparisons to complex analysis in order to provide the operators with actionable data to maintain their building. Smart Building Systems go beyond next level software analytics, controls packages, or day one installations. Smart Building Systems require an integrated approach in order to design, commission, and operate highly sustainable buildings long-term.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 13
Advancements in Compressor Design, Testing and Performance Modeling for New Efficiency Standards and Alternative Refrigerants

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Georgi Kazachki, Ph.D., Dayton Phoenix Group, Inc.
Technical Committee: 08.01 Positive Displacement Compressors
CoSponsor: Refrigeration Committee
The industry is driving toward lowering the carbon footprint of air-conditioning and refrigeration systems through more stringent efficiency standards and lower GWP refrigerants. This is creating a strong demand from compressor manufactures to produce more data regarding the operation of the compressors without sacrificing accuracy. Adapting compressor standards and more economical test methods are needed for developing compressor performance maps. The proper assessment of the actual compressor performance in a system or unit derived from the compressor performance maps that are developed at standardized rating conditions is a key prerequisite for a successful system design and operation.

1  Analysis of the Performance Rating Standards of Positive Displacement Refrigerant Compressors

Joe Sanchez, Bitzer US, Inc.
This presentation provides an introduction and overview of the current standards for rating positive displacement compressors.  It reviews the industry standard polynomial equation used for presenting ratings and the basis for the reference rating conditions.  It also explains the uncertainty limits associated with the standards and what they mean as they apply to a single compressor versus a batch/rack of compressors.  It explains the limitation of most compressor ratings and provides suggestions on how these ratings should be applied with zeotropic refrigerants as well as how to perform superheat corrections.

2  Representation of a Positive Displacement Compressor Map with Vapor Injection

Gordon Powell
Positive displacement compressors with vapor injection are commonly used in the vapor compression cycle to increase the refrigeration effect of evaporators or the heat rejection of a condenser. It is important to characterize injection flow just like the suction flow in order to allow system designer to size the components of HVAC equipment. This seminar presents a method to characterize compressors with vapor injection.  The method is based on the AHRI 10-coefficient model with the addition of another independent and dependent variable.  The accuracy of the method will be presented and its effect on the number of test points required.

3  A Study of Methods to Represent Compressor Performance Data over an Operating Envelope Based on a Finite Set of Test Data

Vikrant Aute, University of Maryland
This presentation demonstrates determining the optimal method to predict compressor performance over the application envelope maximizing accuracy for a given number of test points. The uncertainty in each method is estimated as a function of measurement reproducibility and/or product-to-product variation, especially at the typical rating points given in the performance rating standard. The AHRI standard 540 was evaluated using three sets of compressor test data, and showed small uncertainty within the operating envelope. The study included uncertainty analysis in power and mass flow rate extrapolation outside the envelope.  The presentation also covers a study on the effect of superheat.

4  Sizing Low and High Compression Stages of Reciprocating Compressor for Optimum Vapor Injection Performance in Economized Cycle

Alex Lifson, P.E., Carrier Corp.
Vapor injection in conjunction with economized cycle is becoming more wide-spread as the unit efficiency requirements become more stringent and more difficult to meet with the new low-GWP refrigerants.   Economized cycle substantially boosts both efficiency and cooling/heating capacity.  A two-stage design is used in reciprocating compressors with vapor injected between the low and high compression stages. One of the most difficult tasks is to properly size the displacement of low and high pressure stages. This paper examines what controls this sizing to optimize vapor injected compressor performance with respect to operating conditions, refrigerant properties, and unit capacity and efficiency goals.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 14
Ammonia and CO2:  Advances in Application

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Tom Wolgamot, P.E., DC Engineering
Technical Committee: 10.01 Custom Engineered Refrigeration Systems
CoSponsor: 10.05 Refrigerated Distribution and Storage Facilities
Ammonia and CO2 are considered alternative refrigerants in some sectors. This seminar presents the background behind the movement to natural refrigerants, successful design approaches employed in Europe and North America using ammonia. An end-user's perspective, experience and decision-making parameters that affect the choice of refrigerants, including the use of low-charge ammonia systems is presented. Lessons learned about the design, installation and operation of a transcritical CO2 system in a Refrigerated Distribution Center are also discussed. The overall objective of this session is to demonstrate the benefits of natural refrigerants and ways to employ them cost effectively.

1  The Transition to Natural Refrigerants

Randal Peterson, P.E.
This session covers the background behind the movement to Low GWP and Natural Refrigerants, discussing regulations and phase-out dates, both nationally and internationally.  The case is made that owners need to begin reviewing alternatives, and why both Ammonia and CO2 are very viable alternatives.

2  Low Charge Ammonia Case Studies

Caleb Nelson, P.E., Azane, Inc.
This session presents several case studies in which low-charge ammonia systems were employed both in the US and Europe.  The case studies include details about the specific project constraints, and how low-charge ammonia systems were designed to fit within those constraints in an overall cost-effective manner.

3  An Owner's Perspective: Electronic Refrigerant Injection Control (ERIC) Ammonia Applications

John Scherer
The overall objective of any design engineer is to provide a cost-effective system that meets the owner's long-term needs.  This session reviews the issues and concerns of a refrigeration system from an owner's perspective, and the lessons learned from the deployment of low-charge ammonia systems.

4  Transcritical CO2 in a Refrigerated Warehouse

John Gallaher, Hill Phoenix
There is a tremendous amount of activity using CO2 in addition to ammonia.  This case study reviews a refrigeranted storage and processing warehouse that was constructed using an existing building shell in the greater Chicago area.  Transcritical CO2 was used to serve multiple temperature areas as well as a portion of the facility that was dedicated to retail sales.  This seminar covers the design, installation, and operation stages of the project and provide lessons learned through the process.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 15
Energy Guideline for Historical Buildings

Fundamentals and Applications
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Constantinos A. Balaras, Ph.D., Group Energy Conservation (IERSD-NOA)
Sponsor: GPC 34
Historic building retrofit projects offer unique challenges to improving energy performance while preserving the historic nature of the building. This seminar introduces the new ASHRAE Guideline 34 "Energy Guideline for Historical buildings," which is in the final stages of development. Presentations provide an overview of relevant guidance and regulations published around the world, summarize the new Guideline 34 and provide insight into specific technical issues that should be considered during historic building retrofit projects.

1  Energy Guidelines for Historic Buildings: Reviewing the Regulatory Context and Recent Trends

Amanda L. Webb, Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University
Historic buildings have traditionally been granted exemptions in energy codes in both the US and EU.  This talk reviews existing guidance on energy efficiency and retrofits in historic buildings, in order to provide context for ASHRAE’s recent work. The defining features of historic buildings and special considerations for their retrofit are introduced, along with the basic tenets of historic preservation.  The nature of code exemptions is explored in some ASHRAE’s standards (e.g. 90.1, 100) and from the EU. The contents, approach, and key recommendations in a number of existing guidance documents (CIBSE, AiCARR) are reviewed, highlighting similar trends and major differences.

2  An Introduction to ASHRAE's New Energy Guideline for Historical Buildings

Janice Means, P.E., Lawrence Technological University
This presentation gives an overview of the contents in the new ASHRAE GPC 34 Guideline which provides direction on addressing the unique issues associated with making historic buildings more energy efficient. Work on the guideline was initiated in late fall of 2012 by a relatively small, but internationally- and discipline-diverse ASHRAE committee. Seminar attendees will be educated on the structure and general recommendations in the guideline.  This document is intended to advise design teams. The developers went to great lengths to respect and preserve historic architecture and associated artifacts while striving to optimize the buildings’ energy efficiency and occupant comfort.

3  Key Historic Building Recommendations in ASHRAE Guideline 34

Michael C. Henry, P.E., Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, School fo Design, University of Pennsylvania x
Energy efficiency is critical for the continued utility and function of a historic building, but energy efficiency measures (EEMs) should not diminish the building’s durability or its character-defining features. Historic buildings vary greatly in envelope construction, condition, spatial configuration, climatic context, use and occupancy.  These variations preclude broad prescriptive EEMs since some EEMs may have unintended negative impacts on a specific building.  ASHRAE Guideline 34 addresses this concern by identifying EEMs with high benefit and low risk and EEMs which may have negative impacts and require study.  Attendees will learn how to apply ASHRAE Guideline 34 to this important issue.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 16
Energy Saving and Thermal Comfort Comparison of Different Heating Distribution Systems in Commercial and Residential Buildings

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Reza Ghias, Ph.D., Southland Industries
Technical Committee: 04.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
The air distribution systems play an important role in thermal comfort and energy consumption in commercial and residential buildings. The flow rate, temperature and location of the supply air affect the thermal comfort, temperature stratification and particle transportation in a room. Owners and engineers are more encouraged to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) as its impact on human performances and energy saving is getting more important for the companies. The speakers compare different types of the heating distribution systems and show how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can address their design challenges and efficiencies.

1.00  Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness with All-Air Heating Systems

Atila Novoselac, Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin
The room air distribution in the occupied zone affects pollutant transport, temperature field, and draft risks. With all-air heating systems, buoyancy of a hot supply air from a celling diffuser often prevents proper air distribution in the room causing large temperature stratification and stagnant zones. This presentation shows velocity and temperature distribution in the room with all-air heating system, when considering different flow rates and supply air diffuser types. The study compares temperature stratification, air diffusion performance index (ADPI), and ventilation defectiveness (VE). It identifies types of diffusers and operation conditions that are suitable for all air-heating systems.

2.00  Using Stratified Air Systems for Heating Mode

Mikhail Koupriyanov, P.Eng., Price Industries Limited
Stratified air systems such as displacement ventilation and underfloor technologies have seen increased usage in North America in many types of installations. Both types of systems are driven by thermal buoyancy and are primarily used for cooling where they can potentially decrease energy consumption and improve indoor air quality. Although there is plenty of guidance on proper design of these systems for cooling their use in climates where heating is also required is not as straightforward. Design guidance is provided through project examples in several climate zones. CFD is used to assess the predicted performance of the presented design options.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 17
Plumbing System Design Criteria to Minimize the Potential for Legionella Growth

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Tim Keane, Legionella Risk Management Inc.
Technical Committee: 06.06 Service Water Heating Systems
CoSponsor: 03.06 Water Treatment
ASHRAE 188-2015 provides legionella risk management requirements for the design and operation of plumbing systems. ASHRAE Guideline 12, being updated, provides direction on how to accomplish them. Legionnaires' disease, a disease of plumbing systems, is frequently caused by issues related to plumbing system design. Misperceptions are all too common and many think it is an accident that can't be avoided. This seminar focuses on the design, construction and commissioning of building potable water systems. A discussion from three different perspectives, the key factors impacting Legionella growth in piping systems: velocity, turnover, temperature, materials and complexity of components is held.

1  Are Energy Efficiency and Legionella Risk Mitigation at Odds?

Gary Klein, Gary Klein and Associates, Inc.
The rules for plumbing design were codified shortly after World War II. Since then, flow rates and fill volumes of plumbing fixtures and appliances, have been reduced. However, the math for sizing pipe has not yet been revised to account for these reductions. This effect is very noticeable in hot water distribution systems, where lowering flow rates increases the time for hot water to arrive, resulting in much less energy savings than would have been expected. This presentation will discuss this and other unintended consequences of water use efficiency measures and provide practical means of mitigating the negative impacts.

2  The Role Materials Can Play in Legionella Risk Mitigation

Jeff Ramey, United Technologies, Carrier Corporation
Risk minimization strategies for biofilm and bacteria prevention need to include consideration of piping system materials.  Research and real-world experience shows that piping material affects biofilm growth rates and chlorine consumption in water, while common disinfectants used to prevent bacterial growth have significant impacts on piping system integrity.  Best-in-class materials should possess resistance to bacteria and biofilm growth, and to all forms of chlorine disinfection.  Attendees will see evidence of why chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) possesses both of these forms of resistance, and should be strongly considered by designers as part of their risk minimization strategy.

3  Lessons Learned from Failure Analysis

Tim Keane, Legionella Risk Management Inc.
Henry Ford said “The only real mistake is the one from which we learn nothing.”  Legionnaires' disease outbreaks are worst-case failures typically resulting in multiple illnesses and deaths.  The subsequent costs associated with investigation, remediation, control and frequently litigation can be from the hundreds of thousands to hundreds of millions of dollars.   This presentation will provide lessons learned from engineering analysis of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks investigations in varying building types across the US.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 18
Water Treatment Programs: Designing for Asset Management and Long-Term Efficiency

HVAC Systems and Equipment
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: William E. Pearson II, Southeastern Laboratories
Technical Committee: 03.06 Water Treatment
CoSponsor: 08.06 Cooling Towers and Evaporative Condensers
Designing a cooling water system to provide proper water treatment is a fundamental aspect of design to provide long term asset management and maintaining efficiency over the life of the system. Current system design for energy efficiency and commissioning for proper operation must be maintained over the life of the equipment and designing and operating the water treatment program to enhance these efforts is necessary. This session provides the engineer, commissioning agent and owner the tools necessary to accomplish these goals.

1  Water Treatment Fundamentals and Performance Metrics

Jon Cohen, ChemTreat
A basic understanding of cooling water treatment fundamentals, treatment strategies and key performance metrics is necessary for designing and operating cooling towers. This presentation provides an overview of water treatment for asset protection for cooling systems and why it's necessary. A brief outline of what tools are available to use by design engineers and owners will be provided, along with key performance metrics that can be incorporated into commissioning documents and operating manuals. Attendees will walk away with an understanding of fundamental aspects of water treatment and what should be expected of a good water treatment program.

2  Control and Monitoring Equipment for Cooling Tower Water Treatment

Patrick Racine, P.Eng., Klenzoid Canada - a DuBois Company
Owners of evaporative cooling equipment must maintain their equipment to minimize risk, while reducing operating costs and reducing water and energy consumption.  Having the proper water treatment control and feed program is a critical part of achieving these goals.  This seminar provides an overview of the current industry best practices and look at emerging control and feed opportunities.  An easy to use water treatment equipment selection matrix will be reviewed.  The content is tailored to engineers and facilities managers involved in designing, retrofitting and operating evaporative cooling systems.

3  Water Treatment for HVAC Specifications

Jeff Boldt, P.E., KJWW Engineering Consultants
Consulting engineers are often unsure about how prescriptive vs. how performance-based their specifications should be. This presentation describes how one firm approaches this, mainly from a prescriptive standpoint, and what they specify. It covers water analysis and how it relates to both domestic and hydronic systems. Other topics covered are cleaning of piping systems, water treatment for corrosion reduction in hydronic systems, best practices for glycol systems, and a brief synopsis of Legionella suggestions based on ASHRAE Standard 188.

3:15 PM-4:45 PM
Seminar 19
Energy Management for Multi-Building Portfolios from the Owner-Operator and the Consultant Perspectives

Fundamentals and Applications
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Annie Smith, P.E., Ross & Baruzzini
Technical Committee: 07.06 Building Energy Performance
When it comes to energy management of large commercial and institutional multi-building portfolios, owner-operators have a lot of questions to answer: Where to start with energy upgrades? What energy projects should be implemented and which buildings should they be implemented in? What goes in an energy master plan and why is one necessary? How valuable are energy audits and how many should be paid for? How can a central plant be optimized? This seminar focuses on answering these questions, using case studies and providing insights into successful energy management through the experiences of both consultants and owner-operators.

1  Implementing an Integrated Sustainability Energy Master Plan

Darryl Boyce, P.Eng., Carleton University
Understanding the long term requirements of the campus facilities is a key element in developing an Integrated Sustainability and Energy Master Plan. This involved evaluating Carleton’s long-term needs and then the APPA Energy and Sustainability Assessment Tool,(ESAT) to assess our current energy infrastructure, prioritize the opportunities, and develop a comprehensive plan of upgrades for individual buildings as well as the Campus Infrastructure to: save energy and operational costs, fund renewal and indoor environment upgrades through energy savings, improve facilities for our students, faculty and staff and demonstrate environmental leadership to our key stakeholders and the community.

2  8760 Hours of Campus Energy Data

Ryan Corrigan, P.E., 8760 Engineering
Eric Utterson, P.E., 8760 Engineering
The process of energy metering a campus served by central plants always begins with a simple plan, to determine the energy consumption of each building. In practice, however, this strategy can take several years and millions of dollars to execute, with no guarantee that the data is accurate. Successful campus energy metering projects require an in-depth analysis of not just each utility serving a building but also the campus control system, utility distribution layout, and campus network infrastructure. 8760 Engineering has used a simple process to help our clients design, install, maintain and ultimately use accurate meter data.

3  Phased Implementation for Reducing Energy Consumption on a Commercial Campus

Gwenn Ivester, Cushman & Wakefield
Large, multi-building portfolios can contain buildings of many different ages and use types. However, they all require monitoring and continuous or retro-commissioning to maintain their optimum energy efficiency. The reality of value engineering and expedited timelines to occupancy often renders even new commercial buildings less energy efficient than intended. This can leave the owner with a need to perform formal energy audits and retro-commissioning within the early life of the building. Cushman & Wakefield has implemented a phased and multi-pronged process to optimizing and maintaining energy performance of the client's home office campuses in St. Louis, MO and Tempe, AZ.

Monday, 27 June 2016

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Technical Paper Session 2
Challenges and Opportunities with Refrigerants

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Neil P. Leslie, P.E., Gas Technology Institute
Technical Committee: 03.02 Refrigerant System Chemistry
Current phase out programs to transition away from higher global warming potential refrigerants have not come without their own challenges: high ambient temperature environments, contaminants in new and reclaimed refrigerants and instances of counterfeit refrigerants to name a few. The mixing of counterfeit refrigerants with R134a has been reported in mobile refrigeration units around the world, causing violent and unexpected explosions, resulting in multiple fatalities. In addition, counterfeit refrigerants have caused system reliability issues in numerous air-conditioning applications. On the flip side, there are opportunities in improving the performance of heat pumps in cold climates by applying refrigerant mixtures.

1.00  Evaluation of Refrigerant Mixtures in Three Different Cold Climates Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps (ST-16-006)

Ali Hakkaki-Fard, Ph.D., CanmetENERGY
Zine Aidoun, Ph.D., CanmetENERGY
Parham Eslami-nejad, Natural Resources Canada
This paper addresses the challenge of improving the performance of Heat Pumps (HPs) in cold climate condition by applying refrigerant mixtures. The potential benefits of implementing R32/CO2 zeotropic refrigerant mixtures in three different residential air-source HPs for cold climates is studied. The cases studied are: conventional residential HP, HP with variable mixture control system and HP with variable compressor speed. The seasonal performance of a heating system with these air-source HPs, supplemented with an auxiliary electric heater is studied in the cold climate city of Montreal. To this aim, a detailed screening HP model previously developed is modified and used. The obtained results highlight the potential HP performance improvement of applying refrigerant mixtures.

2.00  Examination of the Reactions of R40 with R134a and POE Refrigeration System Materials (RP-1665) (ST-16-007)

Stephen Kujak, Trane
Instances of counterfeit refrigerants causing violent and unexpected explosions, resulting in multiple fatalities, have been reported in mobile refrigeration units around the world. In addition, counterfeit refrigerants have caused system reliability issues in numerous air-conditioning applications. It was initially believed the inclusion of methyl chloride (R40) in the refrigerant composition caused these explosions and reliability issues. ASHRAE research project RP-1665 was commissioned to examine reactivity of R40 with R134a refrigeration system materials. R40 reactivity, in concentration ranges of 0.01 to 10 percent, was studied in the presence of R134a, polyolester lubricant (POE), aluminum 1100 metal, aluminum 380 metal, in the presence of iron metal, copper metal, sodium aluminum silicate zeolite and alumina catalysts. R40 was shown to have varying levels of reactivity, generally mild, but showing the potential for catastrophic reactivity. This paper contains a summary of the work from ASHRAE Research project 1665 and will provide insights into the impact of R40 contamination, by providing the chemistry of the reactions, preventative safeguards, threshold levels, and assessment procedures. RP-1665 was conducted by McCampbell Analytical Inc., located in Pittsburg, California.

3.00  Effects of Halogenated Unsaturated Contaminants on the Reliability of HVAC&R Equipment (RP-1641) (ST-16-008)

Ngoc Dung (Rosine) Rohatgi, Ph.D., Spauschus Associates Inc.
The presence of unsaturated fluorocarbon contaminants in the refrigerants used in HVAC&R systems may result in reaction products that could potentially cause problems in system performance or reliability. Since 2007, the 40 ppm limit for unsaturated halogenated contaminants in new and reclaimed refrigerants set by AHRI 700 has proven to be more restrictive to reclaimers, recyclers and HVAC&R system providers than previously thought. In addition, compounds such as hydro-fluoro-olefins (HFO) have been tested as low global warming potential (GWP) alternative refrigerants and shown to have acceptable stability in some applications. So, it may not be appropriate to classify all unsaturated compounds as unstable and blanket them under the same restrictive limit.
This research project aimed at determining the effects of halogenated unsaturated contaminants present in refrigerants on the stability of refrigerant/lubricant systems and recommending a concentration limit specific to the unsaturated contaminant below which the refrigerant/lubricant system is thermally stable. The following refrigerant/lubricant mixtures with their corresponding contaminants were selected for stability study in sealed tube tests: (1) R-134a/POE with with 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, R-1131 and HFO-1234yf; (2) R-1234yf/POE with HFO-1225ye(Z), HCFC-1233xf and HFC-1243zf; (3) R-123/Mineral Oil with R-1122, R-1123 and R-1131.
 Based on criteria such as visual changes, Total Acid Numbers (TAN), organic anion and dissolved metal concentrations after aging, it was concluded that the R-134a/POE system was as stable as the control (without contaminant) when the concentration of its contaminants was less than 1000 ppm. The R-1234yf/POE system was stable when its contaminants were less than 5000 ppm, while the R-123/Mineral Oil system was stable when its contaminants were less than three weight-%. These maximum concentration limits were however based on sealed tube stability tests and would need to be balanced against other safety concerns, such as toxicity, flammability, handling and recycling practices.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Technical Paper Session 3
Efficiency Gains for Refrigeration and Chilled Water Systems

HVAC Systems and Equipment
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: David Yashar, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Commercial and industrial refrigeration systems consume a significant portion of electrical energy costs and can represent a high capital cost to an owner. These papers look at optimizing operating conditions and components to improve efficiency, improve the overall life cycle of the equipment and discuss the different available methodologies for measuring and verifying the efficiencies in chilled water system upgrades.

1  Quantifying Efficiency Gains of Refrigeration Systems Using Advanced Expansion Valve Technology (ST-16-009)

Kaimi Gao
Bryan Rasmussen, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
Commercial and industrial refrigeration systems consume a significant portion of US electrical energy. In this paper, advanced expansion valve and control algorithms are evaluated to quantify the potential energy savings due to improved system regulation and efficient start-up of vapor compression refrigeration systems. The performance of the new MEMS actuators with different control strategies is compared with the standard mechanical valves and a commercially available superheat controller. Additionally, this research includes a comprehensive set of experimental tests that identify the most effective elements of advanced valve control strategies, including the impact of refrigerant migration control strategies. The experimental results confirm that 30-50% improvements in cyclic COP are possible using improved expansion valve controls, while the benefits of preventing refrigerant migration do not outweigh the additional cooling achieved if refrigerant continues to flow through the expansion valve during the compressor off period.

2  Control and Optimization of Vapor Compression Systems Using Recursive Estimation (ST-16-010)

Christopher Bay, Texas A&M University
Avinash Rani
Bryan Rasmussen, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
Building operations account for approximately 40% of US energy use and carbon emissions, and vapor compression cycles are the primary method by which refrigeration and air-conditioning systems operate. Representing a significant portion of commercial and residential building energy consumption, vapor compression cycles are a target for improvement in efficiency and savings. This paper presents a data-driven approach to find the optimal operating conditions of single and multi-evaporator systems in order to minimize energy consumption while meeting operational requirements such as constant cooling or constant evaporator outlet temperatures. The control problem lies in the development of a control architecture that will minimize the energy consumed without requiring any models of the system or expensive mass flow sensors. The application of the presented approach improves efficiency, and is demonstrated in simulation and on an experimental system.

3  WITHDRAWN Improvement of Life Cycles of a 580-Ton Water-Cooled Centrifugal Chiller (ST-16-011)

Ali Haider
Addnan Qayyum
Centrifugal chillers are a significant investment in a centrally air-conditioned building system. Commercial centrifugal chillers are expensive so their maintenance should be the up-most priority for the buyer. It’s a great responsibility on the part of the buyer to maintain such an expensive machinery to maintain the economy of the company. The procedures presented in this paper apply to standard WSC/WDC/WCC family of chillers and HSC heat recovery chillers.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Conference Paper Session 9
Ground Coupled Heat Pumps

Research Summit
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Alamelu Brooks, ICF International
Accurately designing a ground source heat pump system is dependent on the site conditions and well field layout. This session discusses low cost options to determine the site soil condition, proposes improvements to past vertical borehole sizing and evaluates the life cycle cost of hybrid ground source systems and coupling GSHP with supermarket refrigeration systems.

1  Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pumps: Life Cycle Costs Compared to Non-Hybrids (ST-16-C025)

Kent Beason, P.E.
Simulations were conducted in order to make assessments regarding life cycle costs of hybrid ground source heat pump systems with different pumping configurations on an elementary school design.  The long term simulations evaluated the systems’ performance over a 20 year period. The basecase in this study is an all-ground heat exchanger (all-GHX) configuration.  A closed circuit cooling tower (CCCT) and dry fluid cooler (DFC) were separately modeled to provide heat rejection in the hybrid systems.  Life cycle costs of the all hybrid systems presented herein for an example building are estimated between 35-40% less than an all-GHX configuration.  The basecase life cycle cost is estimated at $894,000 while the hybrid options ranged from $565,000 to $578,000. These likely do not represent the lowest life cycle cost designs which would balance the sizing of the system components including the ground source heat exchanger and supplement heat rejection device with the associated energy costs’ present value.  In many instances, there are space constraints on sizing individual components, most notably the ground heat exchanger.  As such, the alternate hybrid designs arbitrarily utilize 140 bores which is one-half the size of the base design at 280 bores, with the addition of a supplement heat rejection device which is sized to provide acceptable borefield temperatures. The control scheme utilized across all hybrid systems considered common in industry (Thornton 2014),  inherently allows loop temperatures to elevate and forms a solid basis upon which to make valid conclusions regarding life cycle comparisons between an all-GHX design and Hybrid systems.  The heat pump entering water loop temperature (EWT) target was designated as 95⁰F, but iterations to reduce the sizing of the supplemental heat rejection device and allow higher temperatures of no more than 100⁰F were acceptable if resultant life cycle costs were favorable.  DFC physical size and acoustical concerns were peripheral considerations. Hybrid systems are designated as Case One thru Case Four. Additional simulations with further reduced borefields are briefly explored which indicated possible life cycle costs savings of over 40% with total life cycle costs of around $500,000, and presented as Case 1A and 4A.  Pumping configurations included the use of dual individual circulator pumps, single circulator pumps w/central variable speed pump, and a single central variable speed pump.  The basecase which utilized dual circulator pumps used the most pump energy, while a central variable speed pump achieved 60% pump energy savings.

2  Operational and Economic Analysis of GSHP Coupled with Refrigeration Systems in UK Supermarkets (ST-16-C026)

Pietro Dalpane, Imperial College London
Salvador Acha, Ph.D., Imperial College London
Nilay Shah, Ph.D., Imperial College London
Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) provide with the opportunity to be coupled with refrigeration units. In principle, the heat rejected by refrigerators can be harnessed to raise the efficiency of the heat pumps.
This paper analyses the operational and economic performance of this innovative system deployed in Sainsbury’s supermarkets. First, the efficiency of the GSHP is evaluated, throughout the stores and over the period under consideration. Then, an economic analysis comparing the efficiency of investing in GSHP rather than in gas boiler systems is conducted. Recommendations on cost reductions are finally developed. Results show the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of GSHP systems to be highly dependent on the period of the year. During the summer, efficiency is roughly 40% less than during the winter. Overall, the efficiency of all the GSHP systems appear to be above the eligibility threshold for the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), with the average Seasonal COP (SCOP) of the stores being 3.0 in 2014. From an economic perspective, this average performance leads to roughly £120,000 of operational savings per year compared to gas boiler systems, with significant contribution stemming from the improvement in the refrigeration systems. Calculations show an investment payback time (PBT) of less than 8 years, a figure projected to rise slightly in the upcoming years as electricity becomes more expensive than gas.
Finally, this research project highlights cost reductions, achievable through two different approaches. First, by turning off heat pumps only when most economically convenient, up to 5.5% of the electricity costs can be saved among the stores and nearly 15% in stores boasting high thermal efficiency. Second, the profitability of the system deprived of the boreholes is evaluated. Despite the ineligibility for the RHI, the small CAPEX of this configuration could lower the PBT to 6 years.

3  Accounting for Borehole Thermal Capacity When Designing Vertical Geothermal Heat Exchangers (ST-16-C027)

Laurent Gagné-Boisvert, Ecole Polytechnique De Montreal
Michel Bernier, Ph.D., P.E., Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Steady-state heat transfer inside boreholes is usually assumed when sizing geothermal boreholes and a constant borehole thermal resistance is used to calculate the temperature difference from the fluid to the borehole wall. Thus, heat rejected into the fluid is assumed to be transferred immediately at the borehole wall. In reality, steady-state borehole heat transfer is rarely present. Rejected heat will heat the fluid and the grout before reaching the borehole wall and be transferred to the ground. These transient effects, caused by the fluid and grout thermal capacities, are beneficial as they reduce the peak ground loads and, consequently, the required borehole length. This paper proposes improvements to the ASHRAE vertical borehole sizing equation to account for borehole thermal capacity. In the first part of this study, annual TRNSYS energy simulations are performed on a residential ground-source heat pump system. Borehole models that account for thermal capacity are used to quantify the borehole transient effects for a range of operating conditions. In the second part of the paper, modifications to the current ASHRAE sizing equation are proposed to consider borehole thermal capacity. Results show that neglecting borehole transient effects leads to oversized boreholes and overestimated heat pump energy consumption. By considering the fluid and grout thermal capacity, it appears that borehole length can be reduced by about 10% and heat pump energy consumption by 5%. The largest reductions occur when heat pumps operate intermittently.

4  A Simple Process for Testing the Properties of the Ground for the Design of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems (ST-16-C028)

Kyle Larsen, Ph.D., P.E., Eastern Washington University
Kayleen Teachman, Eastern Washington University
Geothermal heat pumps are a greener alternative to the traditional heating and cooling systems for buildings. Instead of using as much fuel or electricity to heat and cool a building as a conventional system does the geothermal heat pump saves energy by using the ground or nearby water source as a heat sink to displace the thermal energy. They tend to be rather large and have an expensive initial cost but in the long run they save money and fossil fuels. Most heat pump’s pipe configurations are buried under the ground where they will not be easily accessed at a later date. Because of this, the design of the configuration must be right the first time. This can be very difficult because the thermal properties of the ground varies from location to location. The ground in one place might be mostly sand and a mile away the ground might be mostly clay, so it becomes very difficult to design configurations and they can be easily oversized or undersized for the building depending on the thermal properties of the ground. This paper will explain a test process that can be done to test for the thermal properties of the ground before designing the configuration for a geothermal heat pump. This experiment is performed at the site of which the heat pump would be installed to gain the thermal properties of that particular location. A low cost and simple to use system consisting of a pump, tank, thermocouples, flow meter and data collector is used. By using this information a proper pipe configuration can be designed to best fit the needs of the building and configured to fit the available land on the property.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 20
Computer Aided Renewable Energy System Design with Case Studies

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Wangda Zuo, Ph.D., University of Miami
Technical Committee: 04.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
CoSponsor: 06.07 Solar Energy Utilization
Renewable energy is essential for the realization of net zero buildings. This seminar invites researchers from both architecture and engineering disciplines to demonstrate how to use modeling technologies such as computational fluid dynamics to improve the design of the renewable energy systems in buildings. The researchers introduce the applications of modeling technologies in the design of building envelopes and building systems such as the heating system with various renewable energy sources. The impacts of the renewable energy on the building energy performance, CO2 emission, and the indoor thermal comfort are also discussed.

1  Zero Coal and Low Emission Heating in Rural Houses: What Does It Mean to Energy and Environment in China?

Xudong Yang, Ph.D., Tsinghua University
The speaker introduces current situations and trends of energy use in Chinese rural buildings, followed by setting up a goal to achieve zero coal and low emission heating. He then addresses a subset of problems that are important to low emission heating in Chinese rural housing. These are the need to: improve the thermal integrity of rural housing; develop biomass utilization technologies for heating and cooking; develop solar energy utilization technologies for heating and hot water supply. Strategies for reducing the use of coal and CO2 emissions in rural communities are discussed with demonstration projects.

2  Utilizing CFD for Passive Solar Design Validation

Shan He, Iowa State University
Ulrike Passe, AIA, Iowa State University
While contemporary architects desire the integration of passive solar heating strategies into design concepts, energy performance is still difficult to predict due to the complexity of related physics. Few energy modeling tools provide passive solar heating because the selection of CFD turbulence models for buoyancy low velocity phenomena and solar radiation models remain a challenge. Utilizing the Interlock House, a 2009 US DOE Solar Decathlon home and Iowa NSF EPSCoR community lab our team conducted refined measurements of passive solar heating effects on a sunny day (March 8th, 2015) in order to validate new approaches to CFD model selection.

3  Semitransparent PV Glazed Second Façade in Building’s Refurbishment: Indoor and Outdoor CFD Analysis

Marija Todorovic, Ph.D., P.E., Dubai Electricity and Water Authority
BPS aimed to minimize final energy loads has been done as a prerequisite to conduct deep energy refurbishment leading to the effective integration of solar energy. Identified moisture penetration in building envelope directed envelope structure to be changed to ventilated façade within refurbishment works (PV glazed second façade as the most appropriate concerning construction works and existing building structure statics). New façade cooling and heating loads and their dynamics for different levels of PV glazing’s transparency and different designs, regimes and uses of ventilation air are studied (encompassing Indoor space comfort, and outdoor air-wind influence CFD and co-simulation analysis).

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 21
Evolving Research on Embedded Tube Radiant Applications

Research Summit
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Devin Abellon, P.E., Uponor
Technical Committee: 06.05 Radiant Heating and Cooling
As engineers and building owners look to embedded-tube radiant heating and cooling applications to maximize energy efficiency while providing optimum occupant comfort, additional research is underway to prove the system's effectiveness and provide better understanding. This seminar covers three different studies that help provide deeper insight into how radiant systems can be applied on both residential and commercial buildings.

1  The System-Wide Effects of Heating System Cost in High Bay Spaces

Omar Hawit, P.E., Westlake Reed Leskosky
Trevor Jaffe, P.E., Westlake Reed Leskosky
The session investigates the system-wide effects of heating system cost in high bay spaces. Heating system type, space temperature set points, and infiltration rates were considered while weighing the first cost of system components against the energy cost of the system operation. The three system types analyzed were forced-air unit heaters, radiant heating slab, and overhead infrared heating. The impact of combustion efficiency, heating effectiveness, parasitic losses, and occupant comfort were analyzed. Parametric energy simulations compare system selection, energy cost, and initial costs for various climate zones.

2  Phase Change Materials in Radiant Heating and Cooling Applications

Eleftherios Bourdakis, Technical University of Denmark
The majority of the buildings that will exist by the year 2050 in the developed countries have already been built. Therefore, in order to achieve significant reduction in the energy use in the buildings sector, vast changes have to be implemented in the existing buildings. Installing radiant panels with Phase Change Material (PCM) is a solution that could contribute in achieving this goal. This presentation summarizes the fundamentals of PCMs, the advantages and drawbacks of implementing them in radiant systems and an experimental setup in which radiant ceiling panels with embedded PCM are installed and tested in a climate chamber.

3  Application of Radiant Heating and Cooling in Plus-Energy Houses

Ongun B. Kazanci, Technical University of Denmark
Radiant heating and cooling systems present several advantages over other heating and cooling systems in terms of thermal indoor environment and energy. One of the benefits of radiant systems is that they enable integration of renewable energy resources (ground, night-time radiative cooling, etc.) into the heating and cooling systems in buildings. These advantages of radiant systems make them particularly attractive to be used in plus-energy houses. This presentation summarizes the design, simulation and year-round measured performance of two plus-energy houses equipped with radiant systems. Different performance aspects of the houses will be covered and improvement suggestions will be provided.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 22
Large-Scale Computing

Fundamentals and Applications
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Chris Balbach, P.E., Performance Systems Development
Technical Committee: 04.07 Energy Calculations
Although building energy modeling has been common for many years, tools that support large-scale modeling analysis by leveraging vast cloud computing power are now both affordable and accessible. While these approaches make it easy to analyze tens of thousands of model variants, they may not take the shortest path to lead users to the answers they seek. In this session, presenters share case studies involving large scale modeling and results analysis. Attendees learn how to effectively efficiently design a large scale simulation study.

1  Design of Experiments: Statistical Confidence with Fewer Simulations

New Joshua, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The increasing use of parametric ensembles with building energy models to study sensitivity and accommodate uncertainty has the potential to greatly inform energy studies, but can be mitigated by low statistical confidence from poor experimental design. In this talk, we present the tradeoffs between common statistical approaches to design of experiments and how they can be used in cloud or supercomputing resources.

2  Exercising Occam's Razor: Sensitivity Screening Methods as Applied to Building Energy Models

David Bosworth, BUILDlab, LLC
Building Energy Models are complex and have a lot of inputs, and a minority of the inputs them have a significant effect on a result.  Sensitivity screening tools are designed to be computationally cheap (requiring a relatively small number of simulations) as they rank the model inputs in order of their influence on a particular output.  The goal is to identify which model inputs require the modelers attention, and which can be ignored.  Speakers in this session discuss and demonstrate the use of the Morris Method, a commonly used sensitivity screening algorithm.

3  How to Do Energy Model Uncertainty Analysis with Correlated Input Variables

Ralph Muehleisen, Ph.D., P.E., Argonne National Laboratory

Joshua Bergerson, Ph.D., Argonne National Laboratory
Energy modelers are starting to try to quantify the uncertainty in their energy models. The methods for estimating uncertainty when inputs are independent are fairly well known. However, in the case of buildings, many inputs are not independent.  In particular, occupant related loads such as plug loads, lighting loads, and occupant heat loads are known to be well correlated. Uncertainties of correlated variables can be propagated if joint probability distributions are used and the joint distributions are properly sampled.  In this paper, the selection and sampling of joint distributions for uncertainty with correlated inputs is discussed.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 23
Parting the Clouds to See the Future of Residential Load Calculations

Fundamentals and Applications
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Glenn Friedman, P.E., Taylor Engineering
Technical Committee: 04.01 Load Calculation Data and Procedures
No one can afford the risk of getting load calculations wrong. If load calculations are too fat you lose the job, and if too skinny you have a liability you don’t want. This session presents important information about residential loads calculations including their science, the art, their code requirements and their state of the art. The session also presents information about residential load calculation methods in wide use today, explores the impact of technology on how these methods are applied and speculates on the techniques that may underlie “next generation” procedures.

1  Code Requirements for Residential Load Calculations and Manual J

Luis Escobar
The International Code Council (ICC) and International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) both promulgate mechanical codes that have required residential load calculations for years.  Manual J is the only ANSI-recognized consensus standard for residential load calcs, and is referenced specifically by both code organizations.  This portion of the presentation will review the specific code requirements in the International Residential Code (IRC) and the Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC), and then go on to explain the CLTD method for residential load calculations contained in Manual J.

2  Residential Load Calculations Using the Heat Balance Method

Charles S. Barnaby, CSB Consulting
Most residential cooling load calculations rely on CLTD methods that use single-point calculations for at most a few design days.  CLTD procedures make implicit assumptions about the time profiles of heat gains and the moderation of cooling loads by building thermal mass.  The heat balance method has the advantage of first-principles 24 hour calculations – gains are combined following their actual profiles.  It handles subtle interactions that occur in low energy houses and evaluates the effect of temperature swing that is typical of residential systems.  The presentation describes the heat balance method and shows comparisons to CLTD results.

3  How New Technologies Are Changing the Way HVAC Residential Load Calcs Are Performed

Stephen Roth, P.E., Carmel Software Corp.
Stephen discusses how HVAC technicians are using mobile devices to perform residential HVAC load calculations. So much processing power is now packed into mobile devices that complex software such as this that once could only run on desktop computers can easily run on these mobile devices. HVAC technicians have quickly embraced these devices to perform all manner of field-based work. Some of the benefits include: Saving time by entering all information onsite and emailing required reports to code officials and clients and calculating more accurate HVAC cooling and heating loads so that equipment is sized correctly.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 24
Using ASHRAE Performance Measurement Protocols for Measuring and Benchmarking Commercial Building Performance

Fundamentals and Applications
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Bruce Hunn, Ph.D., Hunn Building Energy
Technical Committee: 07.06 Building Energy Performance
ASHRAE published the Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings (PMP) for building operators, facility managers, engineers and architects with respect to measuring and benchmarking commercial building performance. The PMP aims to provide a standardized set of protocols for a range of cost/accuracy (i.e., Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced levels), to facilitate the appropriate comparison of measured energy, water and indoor environmental quality (thermal comfort, indoor air quality, lighting and acoustics) performance. This seminar introduces the PMP and their use with example case studies that show the various applications of the protocols to real buildings.

1  PMP Energy Protocols

Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., Texas A&M University
This presentation covers the PMP Energy Protocols, including Basic, Intermediate and Advanced methods for characterizing building energy performance. For the Basic protocols the required information includes: building characteristics and annual whole-building energy use of all fuels to calculate indices. At the Intermediate level, monthly or weekly data are used to calculate regression models of the building’s energy use versus the influencing variables. At the Advanced level the protocols utilize daily, hourly or sub-hourly data to refine the regression models and/or apply diagnostic measures using regression models or calibrated simulation. Examples of all three levels are provided.

2  Measurement and Conservation of Water Use

Jim Bochat, Commissioning Concepts
This presentation reviews the ASHRAE Performance Measurement Protocols for water and how these protocol and calculations can be used to properly calculate water use reductions with typical examples of savings.

3  PMP Indoor Environmental Quality Protocols: Overall Application

Hyojin Kim, Ph.D., New Jersey Institute of Technology

This presentation covers the PMP Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) protocols which includes thermal comfort, indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustics and provides a demonstration of how to apply the ASHRAE PMP IEQ protocols in a holistic way in order to evaluate a building’s overall IEQ performance. A case study is presented, including a comprehensive IEQ monitoring cart which was developed to collect continuous IEQ data based on ASHRAE PMP.

4  Thermal Comfort Measurement, Evaluation and Practical Applications Using PMP

David Heinzerling, Taylor Engineering
Building Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) measurements are often complex, time consuming, expensive, and not easily conducted in a manner that covers all commercial building types, therefore evaluating IEQ is not standard practice. This presentation will cover the basic, intermediate, and advanced levels of thermal comfort measurement techniques prescribed in ASHRAE's Performance Measurement Protocols (PMP), which provides users with clear measurement methods and reference standards for evaluation. In addition to a review of the PMP measurement and evaluation procedures, a detailed case study will be presented, including an open-source software tool that helps users collect, analyze, and present measured IEQ data.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Technical Paper Session 4
Measurements and Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Dennis O'Neal, Ph.D., P.E., Baylor University
Three papers dealing with experimental methodology and optimization of heat and mass transfer applications. Laboratory experiments were conducted in paper one to investigate the frosting conditions for two geometrically identical air-to-air cross-flow plate exchangers. Active mechanisms as a potential effective means to achieve the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in sorption fluids to improve the overall performance of an absorption chiller were posed in paper two. And in paper three, the application of Robust Design Engineering Methodology (RDEM) is used to assess minimum temperature and cold mass fraction gradient for the performance of Counter flow Vortex Tube.

1.00  Optimizing Excess Air in Relation to Energy, Temperature and Reduction of Emissions of Methane Gas in a Combustion Nozzle: Using Numerical Combustion Modeling (ST-16-012)

Ali M. Hasan, CEng, KEO International Consulting Engineers
Optimizing the combustion performance and reduction of emissions of Methane gas by varying excess air has been and continues to be an area of interest for researchers, manufacturers and operators. With the aim of developing more energy efficient systems meeting stricter environmental emission controls. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive graphical presentation for easier optimization of the combustion process in relation to; energy, temperature, and pollutants. Easy to use equations were developed with guidance on how to accurately optimize combustion.

Methodology; numerical software tools were used in analyzing injected; Methane gas and – variable excess air ratios. Emissions such as; Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Nitrogen Oxides, were also recorded, and analyzed for optimum energy output versus lower emissions. .

Results; were tabulated and graphs generated. Equations were derived using industry established software tools. The accuracy of the developed equations was assessed on statistical basis. Discussions on advantages and disadvantaged on excess air are included.

2.00  Experimental Setup and Methodology on Active Mechanisms for Enhancing Heat and Mass Transfer in Sorption Fluids (RP-1462) (ST-16-013)

Yuebin Yu, Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Ziqi Shen, University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Josephine Lau, Ph.D., Univ of Nebraska-Lincoln
Enhancement of heat and mass transfer in sorption fluids coulde improve the overall performance of an absorption chiller. Active mechanisums were proposed as a potential effective means to achieve this goal. A testing facility is needed to evaluate the impact on the performance of chiller after adding an active mechanisums. The challenges we face include the fulfillment of mechanism motion to driving extra heat and mass transfer in an absorber, the measurement of related variables and the stablility & repeatability of findings. The issues come from the fact that an absorption chiller is a close-loop system with large heat exchangers, has a low inside pressure and can sustain only small pressure drop along the refrierant loop. Measures are needed to exclude the impact from the vibration to the untargeted components in the system. In this paper, we introduce the details of the lab construction methodology, including the vibator, the auxiliary water loop system, and the measuring instruments. Then, we present several examples to show the operation and testing procedure and stability. At last, the experiment plan matrix and analysis methodology are presented which will be applied in the next phase experiment. This paper provides useful information of active mechanism experiment setup and test methodology for the researchers in the same area who may conduct related work.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Technical Paper Session 5
Advances in VFD Control and Building Operations and Maintenance

HVAC Systems and Equipment
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Li Song, Ph.D., P.E., University of Oklahoma
Technical Committee: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
Variable frequency drives (VFDs) are widely applied on induction motors in various HVAC applications. However, field studies and research shows that few variable flow systems are optimally controlled and never realize their full potential savings. These papers examine various factors and use simulations, experimental data, and field measurements to unlock greater potential savings when using variable frequency drives.

1.00  Data and Interfaces for Advanced Building Operations and Maintenance (RP-1633) (ST-16-014)

Dr. Nicholas T. Gayeski, Ph.D., KGS Buildings, LLC
This paper provides recommendations for data-driven interfaces for advanced building operations and maintenance developed through ASHRAE Research Project 1633 (RP1633). Informing operations and maintenance with data-driven information is critical to achieve high performance buildings. Substantial guidance, such as ASHRAE Guideline 13 and Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings, has already been created illustrating how to measure and convey building performance information. RP1633 focused attention on operations and maintenance stakeholders, including control technicians, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) technicians, service providers, commissioning agents, and facility managers by conducting literature reviews, commercial interface reviews, and stakeholder interviews in order to create guidance about data-driven metrics and visualizations that clearly quantify and communicate building operational performance to these stakeholders. The results of this research are presented here, with recommendations to provide metrics and visualizations at multiple scales, including portfolio-wide, whole building, and for specific building areas, systems, and equipment. Metrics span categories related to operating costs, utility consumption, carbon emissions, system performance, controllability, faults, and energy savings. Metrics may be visualized: on maps, system graphics, and in floorplans; as time-series line c harts, in calendar plots, bar charts, and pie charts; and relative to expected performance, past performance or a relevant benchmark. Feedback is presented from operations and maintenance personnel and our research about the types of metrics, at each scale, in which visualization format are most useful for advanced operations and maintenance.

2  Improving Variable Speed Pumping Control to Maximize Savings (ST-16-015)

Kathleen Sturtevant
Alexandra Brogan, Plug Smart
Vijay Gopalakrishnan
Zachary Valigosky
Kelly Kissock, Ph.D., P.E., University of Dayton
According to some estimates, pumps account for between 10% and 20% of world electricity consumption (EERE 2001; Grundfos 2011). Unfortunately, about two thirds of all pumps use up to 60% too much energy (Grundfos 2011), primarily because of inefficient flow control. Varying pump speed using a variable frequency drive on the pump motor is one of the most efficient methods of flow control. As a consequence, about one-fifth of all U.S. utilities incentivize variable frequency drives (VFDs) (NCSU 2014), and many of these drives control pumping systems.
However, field studies and research show that few variable-flow systems are optimally controlled and the fraction of actual-to-ideal savings is frequently as low as 40% (Kissock 2014; Ma 2015; Song, L., Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, pers. comm., July, 2013.). Utility incentive programs that rely on ideal energy saving calculations could overestimate savings by 30% (Maxwell 2005).
Previous work has shown the importance of changing motor efficiency, VFD and pump efficiency on savings (Bernier and Bourret 1999; Maxwell 2005). This work considers the difference between actual and ideal savings caused by excess bypass flow, position and setpoint of control sensors, and control algorithms. This paper examines the influence of these factors on energy savings using simulations, experimental data, and field measurements. In general, energy savings are increased when bypass is minimized or eliminated, pressure sensors for control are located near the most remote end use, and the pressure control setpoint is minimized.

3  Simulated Energy Efficient Voltage-Frequency Ratios of Variable Frequency Drives on Induction Motors (ST-16-016)

Gang Wang, P.E., University of Miami
Koosha Kiamehr, University of Miami
Variable frequency drives (VFDs) are widely applied on induction motors that drive fans, pumps and compressors. Under partial loads, VFDs not only adjust frequency to reduce motor speed and mechanical output power (load) but also adjust voltage to reduce motor electrical input power. Traditionally, VFD manufacturers recommend controlling the voltage to be proportional to the square of the frequency for variable torque motor loads on fans and pumps, and controlling the voltage to be proportional to the frequency for constant torque motor loads on compressors. The purpose of this paper is to investigate energy efficient voltage-frequency ratios of VFDs using the motor equivalent circuit method. First, the motor load and speed correlation is derived for different applications; then VFD voltage is optimized for a given VFD frequency to maximize motor efficiency; and finally the motor efficiency is simulated and compared under the optimal voltage and different preset voltages. The simulation results show that the motor efficiency with the ratio of voltage to frequency to the power of 1.5 is mostly close to the optimal efficiency for variable torque motor loads and the motor efficiency with the ratio of voltage to frequency to the power of 0.5 is mostly close to the optimal efficiency for constant torque motor loads with efficiency improvement by up to 3% over the traditionally ratios.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 10
Residences and Moisture

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kimberly Pierson, Stanford White
This session compares the modeled energy consumption with utility bills of two houses and provides steps to yield more accurate modeled data; including construction materials, equipment performance curves, roof elevation and weather data. Secondly this session addresses the thermal comfort of multi-family facilities based on ASHRAE Standard 55-2013 and compare to occupant surveys and their perception of the space.

1  Pre-Retrofit Assessment of Thermal Comfort and Excess Moisture in Post-War Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Toronto (ST-16-C029)

Daniel Haaland, University of Toronto
Ekaterina Tzekova, Ph.D., Toronto Atmospheric Fund
Jeffrey Siegel, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin

Energy retrofits provide an economically attractive solution to reduce the carbon footprint of existing buildings. However, indoor environmental quality and occupant comfort are often overlooked in the retrofit process. In this paper, we present the results of pre-retrofit monitoring of several multi-unit residential buildings in Toronto, Canada. The temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured in over 70 units across seven social housing buildings (built between 1960 and 1980) currently undergoing an energy retrofit process. Occupant thermal comfort was estimated using the Graphic Comfort Zone Method outlined in ASHRAE Standard 55-2013 and excess moisture was calculated as the vapour pressure excess during non-air conditioning periods. The major finding was that on average, the units were uncomfortable more than 70% of the time, with overheating being the main cause of discomfort. Location within a building (e.g., upper vs. lower floors) and building-specific effects showed little impact, although there was a weak seasonal effect with more overheating in the winter and spring. These findings are consistent with an occupant survey taken early in the project.  There was no consistent evidence of excess moisture, although this may be due to the observed overheating in the units. The results were used to inform the energy retrofit design process and are currently being monitored to ascertain how the retrofits affect occupant comfort in these buildings.

2  Development and Use of the Energy Model of a Research and Demonstration House with Advanced Design Features (ST-16-C030)

Vicente Bortone, P.E., Johnson Controls, Inc.
Nelson Fumo, Ph.D., University of Texas at Tyler
Advances on manufacturing processes and the use of new materials are increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies to a point that their deployment will reach desired levels for the sake of energy security and environmental concerns. Along these advances, the demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of this technology is vital to educate people and promote deployment of these technologies. In this sense, at the University of Texas at Tyler, two research and demonstration houses were built. House #1 is a conventional design with some advanced features, and House #2 has more advanced design features. In this study, House 2 is considered, which has relevant characteristics such as net-zero energy with 7.4 kW of solar photovoltaic system, advanced wall framing with open-cell foam insulation (R-24), unvented attic with open-cell foam insulated roof deck (R-24), vinyl-frame windows with double-pane, low-E glass (U=0.33, SHGF=0.23), ducted single-split system in attic (19.0 SEER, 9.0 HSPF), high solar reflectance shingles, and heat pump water heater. Since building energy performance depends on many factors, different scenarios or design characteristics can be assessed by using an energy model. In this study, the software OpenStudio is used to develop a model for House #2. OpenStudio, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is a user interface for the well know whole building energy simulation engine EnergyPlus. This paper shows the more relevant steps on model development including definition of the constructions in the model for the walls and roof, development of performance curves for the air source heat pump installed in the house, roof elevations development technique, and weather file. As a means of validation of the model, energy consumption from the model is compared against utility bills data in a calibration approach that is available in the software. The model is used to evaluate some design parameter that can reduce energy consumption during one season (cooling or heating), but increasing energy consumption during the other, such as the high solar reflectance shingles and the use of a heat pump water heater.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 25
Designing for a Net-Zero 1740ft (530m) Super High Rise Building

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Sergio Sadaba, P.E., Skidmore Owings & Merrill
This seminar explains the various methods high performance designers follow during the high performance design process. It particularly focuses on the design methodology used in a 1740-ft (530m) supertall net zero building on a 3,450,000-ft² campus in the heart of Jakarta, Indonesia. Pertamina’s new headquarters and campus are a mixed use development for the more than 20,000 employees and visitors expected to work daily on the campus. Low enthalpy geothermal system in a combined heat and power scheme using binary cycle technology as a primary source of energy will make Pertamina’s Energy Tower the tallest net-zero building in the world.

1  Designing for a Net-Zero 1740ft (530m) Super High Rise Building

Sergio Sadaba, P.E., Skidmore Owings & Merrill
This presentation explains the various methods high performance designers follow during high performance design process. It particularly focuses on the design methodology used in a 1740-ft (530m) supertall net zero building on a 3,450,000-ft² campus in the heart of Jakarta, Indonesia. Pertamina’s new headquarters and campus are a mixed use development for the 20,000 plus employees and visitors expected to work daily on the campus. Low enthalpy geothermal system in a combined heat and power scheme using binary cycle technology as primary source of energy will make Pertamina’s Energy Tower the tallest net-zero building in the world.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 26
Dos and Don'ts for Residential Radiant Systems for Heating and Cooling

HVAC Systems and Equipment
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Devin Abellon, P.E., Uponor
Technical Committee: 06.05 Radiant Heating and Cooling
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee, SSPC 55
Radiant heating and cooling systems are being installed in many residences as a way of improving occupant comfort. But how do these systems respond to owners' expectations and even more important do contractors understand the complexities of installing and operating radiant systems?

1  Residential Case Study: Project Lessons Learned from Designing a Hybrid Radiant Based HVAC System.

Robert Bean, GENIVAR
Home owners are seeking out radiant cooling and heating systems due to demonstrated benefits of comfort and efficiency. Designers unfamiliar with these hybrid systems need not break new ground. This seminar discusses the mistakes and lessons learned in client engagement, budgeting, load calculations, design and tendering a hybrid radiant based HVAC system for a private home located in the great lakes region.

2  Dos and Don'ts for Residential Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems

Peter Simmonds, Ph.D., Building and Systems Analytics LLC
Many Developers and Architects are introducing radiant systems into modern day residential designs, but is the integration a smooth integration or are there certain problems that arise. This presentation provides an honest and practical overview of what has happened and what can happen when installing and operating residential radiant systems.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 27
Energy Savings via ASHRAE Level III Auditing, Retrofit and Recommissioning: A Case Study at Hameetman Science Center, Occidental College I

Fundamentals and Applications
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Robyn Ellis, City of Hamilton - Public Works
Technical Committee: 07.03 Operation and Maintenance Management
An HVAC systems assessment was required and completed on a science building just 13 years old. Using ASHRAE Level III Auditing combined with a new field test method that scores the installed HVAC system performance, a surgical approach to improving building efficiency was created. This data was then used to diagnose the systems and create a scope of work for the project enabling confident decision making and the realization of energy savings by facility managers. Past ASHRAE fellow Bob Baker contributed guidance for this project.

1  Utilities Perspective

Melvin Johnson Jr., National Comfort Institute
An HVAC systems assessment and HVAC retrofit was required and completed on a science building just 10 years old.  A unique approach to assessing the needed system upgrades was undertaken. The project approach included an ASHRAE Level III audit plus gathering additional field test data to score the operating efficiency of the HVAC systems.  This data was then used to diagnose the systems and create a scope of work for the project.

2  Energy Perspective

Rob Falke, National Comfort Institute
Upon completion of the audit and retrofit work, testing was completed to measure, document, quantify and verify the energy and water savings produced by the system upgrades.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 28
Engineering Licensure in the U.S.

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Richard Hayter, Ph.D., P.E., Kansas State University Retired
Sponsor: Young Engineers in ASHRAE (YEA)
In the U.S. engineering licensure is required in each state or territory in which an engineer is providing design services. This seminar provides insight as well as details of the licensure process.

1  Personal Experience in Becoming Licensed

Jacob Taylor, P.E., Heapy Engineering
This seminar discusses personal experiences and recommendations in becoming licensed as a Professional Engineer in the U.S.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 29
Why Be Concerned with Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentration?

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Hoy Bohanon, P.E., Hoy Bohanon Engineering PLLC
Sponsor: SSPC 62.1
Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been discussed in the context of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ), focusing on the impacts of CO2 on building occupants, how CO2 concentrations relate to perception of bioeffluents, the use of indoor CO2 to estimate ventilation rates and demand control ventilation. While measured indoor CO2 concentrations are rarely close to health guidelines, much confusion has resulted regarding CO2 in ventilation and IAQ standards. Is there anything in recent research that indicates that we should revise ASHRAE's approach to CO2 in standards and guidelines?

1  Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Standards

Andrew Persily, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been discussed in the context of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ), focusing on the impacts of CO2 on building occupants, how CO2 concentrations relate to perception of bioeffluents, the use of indoor CO2 to estimate ventilation rates, and demand control ventilation. While measured indoor CO2 concentrations are rarely close to health guidelines, much confusion has resulted regarding CO2 in ventilation and IAQ standards. This presentation addresses the relevance of CO2 concentrations to these standards based on their relation to indoor bioeffluent levels and odors and to ventilation rates per person.

2  Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentration: Effects on Subjective and Physiological Responses and Mental Work

Pawel Wargocki, PhD, Technical University of Denmark

The archival literature was reviewed to examine whether exposures to carbon dioxide (CO2) at the concentrations typically occurring indoors would create the risks for building occupants as regards their comfort, health and cognitive performance. Laboratory experiments were performed with human subjects exposed to different levels of CO2 lower than the occupational 8-hour limit of 5,000 ppm to further examine whether CO2 should be considered a toxic pollutant at the levels typically occurring indoors. Should  the role of CO2 in the context of ventilation and indoor air quality change? This presentation shows the results.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Forum 2
A Discussion of 185.1 and 185.2: The New Standards

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Sam Guzman, American Ultraviolet Company
Technical Committee: 02.09 Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment
SPC 185 was organized in 2005 to develop a method of test to determine inactivation rates of airborne microorganisms in air-handling units and air ducts. In 2007 it was divided into SPC-185.1 which deals with Airborne Microorganisms while SPC-185.2 deals with Microorganisms on Irradiated Surfaces. These test method standards, are used to compare UVGI equipment on a standardized basis irrespective of their application. Results are used to give the design engineer an easy-to-use basis for specifying UV devices or estimating the relative performance of UVGI for a given application. This forum discusses the practical application of the new standards.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Workshop 5
Answering the Call: How ASHRAE Standards Can Meet State and Local Demand for High Performance Green Building

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Andrew Persily, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Sponsor: Grassroots Government Advocacy Committee
States and cities around the world are promoting construction of net zero energy and high performance green buildings as part of larger national and global efforts to reduce atmospheric emissions in pursuit of climate change mitigation efforts. ASHRAE standards, such as Standard 189.1 can help meet this demand. This workshop presents attendees with hands-on tools for educating policymakers and effecting positive change in the built environment based on sound technical research.

1  Standard 189.1: A Pathway to Achieving Emissions Reductions Goals

Andrew Persily, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
This presentation describes the role that Standard 189.1 plays in efforts by policymakers to achieve net zero energy and high performance green buildings.

2  European Activities on High Performance Green Buildings

Martin Dieryckx, Daikin Europe NV
Andrea Voigt, The European Partnership for Energy and the Environment
This presentation describes the efforts in Europe to achieve net zero energy and high performance green buildings that have come as a result of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement and related activities.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Technical Paper Session 6
Ground Source Heat Pumps

HVAC Systems and Equipment
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: William Murphy, University of Kentucky
These papers address various aspects of ground source heat pumps including field measurements and predictions of utilizing water from abandoned mines as the heat source and sink. A hybrid system that included both ground source and air source features was compared with strictly ground source or air source units for a residence in a northern climate. Improved water pump control was shown to substantially decrease the pumping energy required for large distributed ground source heat pump systems.

1  Performance Analysis of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Using Mine Water as Heat Sink and Source (ST-16-017)

Mini Malhotra, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Xiaobing Liu, Ph.D., ORNL
Adam Walburger, CDH Energy Corp.
Donald Blackketter, Ph.D., P.E.
Jack L. Skinner, Ph.D., P.E.
This paper summarizes a case study of an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system that uses flooded mines as a heat source and heat sink. This GSHP system provides space conditioning to a 56,000 sq ft (5,203 m2) newly constructed research facility, in conjunction with an on-campus existing steam heating system and an air-cooled chiller as supplementary systems. Heat transfer performance and overall efficiency of the GSHP system were analysed using the available measured data from January through July 2014. The performance analysis identified some issues with using mine water for cooling and the integration of the GSHP system with the existing steam heating system. Recommendations were made for the control and operation of the GSHP system for its improved performance. These recommended strategies, in conjunction with the available measured data, were used to predict the annual energy performance of the system. Finally, the energy and cost savings and CO2 emission reduction potential of the GSHP system were estimated by comparing with a baseline scenario. This case study provides insights into the performance of and potential issues with the mine-water source heat pump system, which is relatively less explored compared to other GSHP system design and configurations.

2  Assessment of Ground Source, Air Source and Hybrid Heat Pumps for a Single Family Building in Cold Climates (ST-16-027)

Parham Eslami Nejad, Ph.D., CanmetENERGY-NRC
Ali Hakkaki-Fard, Ph.D., CanmetENERGY
Zine Aidoun, Ph.D., CanmetENERGY
Mohamed Ouzzane, Canmet Energy Technology centre-Varennes
This article attempts to address the issue of making the right choice between a Direct Expansion Ground-Source Heat Pump (DX-GSHP), an Air-Source Heat Pump (ASHP) and a hybrid of the two in a given heating need context. Detailed screening models previously developed for ASHPs and DX-GHSPs are first used to compare the seasonal performance of these two options for a residential building in the cold climate city of Montreal. Then, the performance of a so-called “Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump (HGSHP)”, integrated air source and ground source system is also investigated. Furthermore, different parameters including borehole total length and heat pump capacity are varied in order to determine the appropriate design in terms of borehole size and heat pump capacity. The results show that by adequate sizing, energy consumption of the DX-GSHP system can be reduced by 50% but performance improvement using HGSHP system is marginal. Such results highlight the importance of further investigations in the area of DX-GSHPs, in order to reduce the borehole installation cost and increase its performance.

3  A Simulation-Based Study on Different Control Strategies for Variable Speed Pump in Distributed Ground Source Heat Pump Systems (ST-16-018)

Xiaobing Liu, Ph.D., ORNL
Zheng O`Neill, Ph.D., P.E., University of Alabama
Fuxin Niu, The University of Alabama
Most commercial ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) in the United States are in a distributed configuration. These systems circulate pure water or an anti-freeze solution through multiple heat pump units via a central pumping system, which usually uses variable speed pump(s). Variable speed pumps have potential to significantly reduce pumping energy use, however, the energy savings in reality could be far away from its potential due to improper pumping system design and controls. In this paper, a simplified hydronic pumping system was simulated with the dynamic Modelica models to evaluate three different pumping control strategies. This includes two conventional control strategies, which are to maintain a constant differential pressure across either the supply and return mains, or at the most hydraulically remote heat pump; and an innovative control strategy, which adjusts system flow rate based on the demand of each heat pump. The simulation results indicate that a significant overflow occurs at part load conditions when the variable speed pump is controlled to main a constant differential pressure across the supply and return mains of the piping system. On the other hand, an underflow occurs at part load conditions when the variable speed pump is controlled to maintain a constant differential pressure across the furthest heat pump. The flow-demand-based control can provide needed flow rate to each heat pump at any given time, and with less pumping energy use than the two conventional controls. Finally, a typical distributed GSHP system is studied to evaluate the energy saving potential of applying the flow-demand-based pumping control strategy. This case study shows that the annual pumping energy consumption can be reduced by 66% using the flow-demand-based control compared with that using the conventional pressure-based control.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Conference Paper Session 11
Airflow Measurements

Fundamentals and Applications
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
Improving the accuracy of air flow measurements in commercial and residential HVAC systems can result in better IAQ, thermal comfort and improved energy efficiency. This session explores different methods of improving air flow measurement as well as verification of their accuracy.

1  Verification of the Accuracy of Air Flow Measurement Using the Multi-Nozzle Chamber Method (ST-16-C031)

Patrick Collins, P.E., Johnson Controls, Inc.
Terry Beck, Ph.D., Kansas State University
James Schaefer, P.E., JACOBS
The multi-nozzle chamber method for air mass flow measurement has been in use in the HVAC&R industry for decades.  The primary flow element is the elliptical nozzle defined by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards.  The ASME nozzle is a passive, ridged construction element that does not require periodic calibration.

As the HVAC&R industry is subject to greater performance efficiency requirements, measurement accuracy for airflow becomes a critical issue.  The accuracy of many instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, and power has improved over the past couple decades.  New test standards now require the evaluation of the uncertainty of measurements and derived values.  These developments have raised questions about what can be realistically expected for the accuracy of the multi-nozzle chamber air flow meter (AFM), especially due to the lack of open literature test data with multi-nozzle configurations.

To determine the accuracy (or uncertainty) to be expected from typical multi-nozzle chambers, a four-nozzle AFM was constructed in strict accordance with current standards and tested at an independent, multi-industry, gas flow test laboratory.  The test laboratory used their primary National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable critical flow Venturi test method with an average uncertainty of +0.3% of the flow.  Six nozzle flow configurations consisting of each of the four nozzles separately, a particular combination of three nozzles and all four nozzles simultaneously, were each subjected to three nozzle throat velocities for a total of 18 different tests.  The velocities included the lowest and highest defined by industry standards and one intermediate velocity.

The test laboratory utilized their NIST traceable, independent mass flow measurement in series with the test AFM and included a measurement of three required parameters: nozzle differential pressure, inlet temperature, and barometric pressure.  Dry air was used to eliminate errors associated with the calculation of moist air properties.  Confirming air mass flow rates were calculated using the nozzle diameters, nozzle flow coefficients, and the measured parameters.  The results of all 18 flow rate tests were compared and shown to be within +0.2 to +0.4%.  This project demonstrates that a typical multi-nozzle AFM, when constructed in accordance with industry standards, can be used for air flow measurements that are accurate to better than +0.4% of reading over the entire flow range.

2  A Method of Efficacy Estimation for ECM Blowers in Residential Gas Furnaces by Using Blower Rotational Speed (ST-16-C032)

Peng Yin, Ph.D., University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Michael Pate, Ph.D., Texas A&M University
James F. Sweeney, Texas A&M University
This study develops a method to estimate the energy performance of blowers that are driven by electronically commutated motors (ECM) in residential gas furnaces based on the measurement of blower rotational speeds. As the first step, the airflow and power of six different ECM blowers from four manufacturers were measured over a range of external static pressures (ESPs) from 0.1 to 1.2 in. w.g. (25 to 300 Pa) in a well-instrumented laboratory environment with a calibrated nozzle airflow chamber. Then, the ECM blower energy performance was determined from the airflow and power measurements and characterized in terms of efficacy, which is the ratio of blower power to airflow rate. In addition, the relationship between parameters of blower rotational speed and efficacy was investigated, leading to the linear correlation development for each tested blower by taking the blower rotational speed as the independent variable and the efficacy as the dependent variable.

Results from the linear correlation development show that ECM blower efficacies can be accurately predicted by using blower rotational speeds as evidenced by the high R2 values ranging from 0.961 to 0.981. For the six tested ECM blowers, the linear factor for the developed correlations varies from -2.881 to -2.657, and the offset factor is in a range of 3.287 to 3.551. Furthermore, a comparison between the predicted and measured efficacies shows an accuracy of ±15% for the developed correlations.

Results generated from this study provide a method to predict the energy performance in terms of efficacies for ECM blowers based on the knowledge of rotational speed. In addition, the experimental data and correlations produced in this study can be used to model the ECM blower efficacy behaviors at different operating speeds.

3  Uncertainty Studies of Airflow Measurements in Non-Ideal Conditions in Variable Air Volume Air Handling Units (ST-16-C033)

Alejandro Rivas Prieto, University of Oklahoma
Jesus Elizondo
Gang Wang, P.E., University of Miami
Li Song, Ph.D., P.E., University of Oklahoma
Methods like the Log-Tchebycheff and Equal Area are commonly used to define the average air velocity across a traverse section. The testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB) of HVAC systems has been adopting those methods to ensure that the installed system is meeting its design capacity. The flow measurements are compromised when space constraints limit the optimal air handling system design; consequently, inadequate straight ductwork with close upstream and downstream fitting disturbances cause common measurement issues. For example, according to ASHRAE 111-1988 field airflow measurements over CAV systems made by experienced technicians commonly have an error as much as 30% when recommended vane anemometers are used while reading irregular flows. Through in-situ airflow measurements in ten air-handling-units, this paper summarizes the statistical studies of measurement uncertainties to explain why the large errors occur in field measurements even though the standard procedures are strictly followed. As a result, a more accurate and robust in-situ airflow local measurement method is introduced in this paper. The proposed method uses hot-wire as the air velocity measurement device due to its proven accuracy at speeds lower than 800 fpm (1 m/s). In order to overcome additional turbulence in the ductwork that is caused by limited duct space, a holding device was also developed for facilitating the time weighted of local airflow measurements.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Conference Paper Session 12
Heat Pumps, Combined Heat and Power

HVAC Systems and Equipment
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Henry A. Becker, H-O-H Water Technology, Inc.
This session evaluates ways to improve efficiency in air to water heat pumps, through improved heat exchanger micro-channel, refrigerant type and optimizing fan and compressor operation. The session also examines the feasibility of bio-methane combined heat and power (CHP) systems in commercial buildings and micro fuel cell CHP systems for residential applications and evaluates the energy and emission reduction for each system.

1  Greenhp: Design and Performance of the Next-Generation Heat Pump for Retrofitting Buildings (ST-16-C034)

Andreas Zottl
Thomas Fleckl, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Björn Palm, Ph.D., KTH Royal Institute of Technology
The GreenHP-project aims at developing a new, highly efficient urban heating system based on a high-capacity air-to-water heat pump for retrofitting multi-family houses and commercial buildings. For this purpose, a comprehensive multi-level research approach ranging from new heat pump component designs to advanced system integration concepts is pursued. The proposed GreenHP system will be operated with a natural refrigerant, will interact with large (renewable) energy systems, like the smart grid in particular, and will include renewable energy sources, like photovoltaic and solar thermal. Combining the expertise from leading European research institutes and industry partners allows an integration of advanced fan, compressor and heat exchangers in a compact system. Using the natural refrigerant R290, the consortium aims for a heat pump system with minimum environmental impact and a high operating efficiency to provide a heating capacity of 30kW. The refrigerant charge of the system is minimised by using aluminium micro-channel tubes in both condenser and evaporator. The use of aluminium for the condenser allows an improved heat exchange compared to conventional steel designs. On the air side of the evaporator highly efficient air fins are developed that are less sensitive to icing. Also the fan is optimised for better handling of icing conditions. A bionic distributor will take care to evenly load the micro-channel tubes of the evaporator with refrigerant. Additionally a new compressor concept is developed, which is integrated in a holistic control strategy for most efficient energy management. In a next step, the newly designed components will be assembled and tested according to international standards (e.g.: EN14825) at the accredited testing facilities at AIT. The tests will focus on the overall system design measuring and evaluating the performance of the GreenHP-pilot unit. The full paper deals with the general GreenHP-layout and presenting first results.

2  Opportunities and Obstacles in Residential, Fuel Cell Based, Micro-CHP: A Review and Analysis (ST-16-C035)

Jeongmin Ahn, Ph.D., Syracuse University
Ryan Milcarek, Syracuse University
Jianshun Zhang, Ph.D., Syracuse University
Traditional residential heating systems have become very efficient leaving little room for significant improvement. However, an alternative means of domestic heating was proposed that utilizes small scale power generation and space/hot water heating technologies known as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) systems. These systems offer significant advantages to conventional heating systems including decreased energy usage, cost, and reduced CO2 emissions. In addition, because these mCHP systems operate as distributed generation, they also reduce transmission losses and eliminate peak demand issues. These benefits come at the expense of complexities including matching the heat to power ratio for the residential sector and significant daily cycling, among other challenges.

Recently fuel cell based mCHP systems have been proposed as a means of providing both heat and power for the residential sector. These systems are meant for power generation at high efficiency and low emissions, but the heat can still be recovered for space or hot water heating. These systems are still under development and significant research is being conducted to determine if fuel cell based systems can match the load requirements of a typical household. Despite the work performed, different studies have had drastically different conclusions for the fate of fuel cell systems leaving many unanswered questions for the future.

A systematic review of current literature was undertaken to assess fuel cell based mCHP for the residential sector. The review highlighted many of the technical challenges facing these systems while also uncovering significant benefits and opportunities. In this paper, the results of the review are presented and an analysis of current trends and future priorities assessed. Fuel cell based mCHP is shown to have significant potential in reducing emissions and conserving natural resources while maintaining current building performance.

3  Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Bio-Methane CHP Units for Commercial Buildings (ST-16-C036)

Dagoberto Cedillos, Imperial College London
Salvador Acha, Ph.D., Imperial College London
Nilay Shah, Ph.D., Imperial College London
Energy consumption from commercial buildings is a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. In the UK, supermarkets consume 3% of the electricity and account for 1% of the country’s carbon emissions (Tassou et al. 2011). This paper explores the implementation of bio-methane fuelled combined heat and power (CHP) systems to satisfy heat and electricity demands of commercial buildings; with the overarching goal of making cost-effective investments and decarbonizing building operations. The research work consists in the development of a CHP technology selection and operation (TSO) optimization model. Results from this effort can be utilized to develop a strategy for investment in bio-methane CHP projects for a portfolio of supermarket buildings.

The TSO model enables a new approach for the selection and operation of CHP units that encompasses whole life costing, carbon emissions as well as half-hourly energy prices and demands throughout the day, seasonally and annually, providing a more comprehensive result than current methods. Utilising historic metered energy demands, projected energy prices and a portfolio of available CHP technologies, the mathematical model solves simultaneously for an optimal CHP unit selection and operational schedule for a determined building based on a preferred objective. The objective can either be: minimum cost, minimum GHG emissions, or a mix of both for an operational period that satisfies the store's energy demands. The model defines which unit to acquire and its power output for each half-hourly interval for different day types and a given time period.

The TSO model was implemented for a sample of 35 buildings from a group of over 1300 stores that belong to a supermarket chain in the UK. These varied in characteristics such as heat-to-power ratio, size, and electricity pricing region. It was identified that the majority of stores assessed could reduce their operational emissions more than 70% while providing returns on investment above 100% by installing low-carbon co-generation units. Results of this model prove that attractive cost and emissions savings are possible through the optimal selection and operation of CHP technologies fuelled by bio-methane.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Conference Paper Session 13
Occupant Predictions and Thermal Comfort

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Helen R. Cerra, ChemTreat, Inc.
This session addresses the difference in modeled occupancy behavior and actual building usage. The session also evaluates the perception of space temperature and thermal comfort and how one's climate and culture may alter this perception.

1  An Agent-Based Occupancy Simulator for Building Performance Simulation (ST-16-C037)

Tianzhen Hong, Ph.D., LBNL
Xuan Luo, Carnegie Mellon University
Tianzhen Hong, Ph.D., LBNL
Sarah Taylor-Lange, Ph.D., LBNL
Traditionally, in building energy modeling (BEM) programs, occupancy inputs are deterministic and less indicative of real world scenarios, contributing to discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use in buildings. This paper presents an agent-based occupancy simulator, which models each occupant as an agent with specified movement events and statistics of space uses. The simulator allows users to group occupants with similar behaviors as an occupant type to reduce the amount of data inputs. It is a web-based tool with graphical user interface, cloud computing and data storage. Two case studies were presented to demonstrate the integration of the occupancy simulator with EnergyPlus and obFMU. The first case study only replaced the occupancy schedules with the one generated by the occupant simulator. The second case study included the replacement of the occupancy schedules as well as the occupant’s control behaviors of lighting, window, and HVAC systems. The results indicated that the occupant simulator can capture the diversity of the behavior rather than the weekly profiles, and can generate realistic occupancy schedules to support building performance simulation.

2  An Evaluation of Recent Models in Demand Side Flexibility: The Case of Thermal Comfort Systems in Office Buildings (ST-16-C038)

Wim Zeiler, Eindhoven University of Technology
Kennedy O. Aduda, Eindhoven University of Technology
Building based demand side flexibility has been identified as critical for successful integration of renewable energy resources in electrical power grids with little or no possible instability and loss of reliability. Also, it has been indicated that thermal comfort systems in buildings are an integral part of demand side flexibility. A number of models have been proposed for harnessing thermal comfort systems in buildings as demand side flexibility. These models have mostly been evaluated for application in residential buildings. In a pioneer attempt, this paper uses year-long practical comfort and energy performance case study data to evaluate some recently proposed demand side flexibility models in office buildings. The data was collected using process based energy consumption meters and whole building comfort sensors installed in the building.   Next, potential flexibilities were then estimated using practical data along the frameworks proposed by identified demand side flexibility models. Evaluation of these models were then done based on metrics that emphasise practicability and cost effectiveness. Analysis is within the context of electricity supply chain in the Netherlands and assumes for cost effectiveness participation of office buildings in the Amsterdam Power eXchange (APX) day-ahead auction and the Dutch balancing energy market under the proposed framework for flexibility management by European based CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group. Evaluation results suggests additional proposals on constraints and practical considerations when using these models for non-residential buildings like offices.

3  Thermal Comfort and Perception inside Air-Conditioned Areas (ST-16-C039)

Kyle Reed, Ph.D., The University of South FLorida
Ahmad Manasrah, University of South Florida
Rasim Guldiken, Ph.D., University of South FLorida
This study describes and compares the results of multiple field surveys about thermal comfort inside air conditioned buildings in two different countries. The field studies were conducted in classrooms at The University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. Only one field study took place in a shopping mall in Amman, Jordan. All studies were conducted in the summer of 2014. The purpose of this study is to investigate the temperature perception of humans in closed areas based on the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard 55 and to understand whether or not these areas are within the acceptable level of thermal comfort. The study also investigates the influence of culture and climate on temperature perception and thermal comfort. The classroom studies consisted of 14 multiple-choice questions that have been distributed to 100 students so far. The shopping mall study consisted of two multiple-choice questions that were asked to 100 random people. The results of the studies showed significant differences in temperature perception and prediction between genders. The results also showed that participants from the shopping mall reported an average of "neutral" thermal sensation even though the thermal environment in the building was not thermally comfortable according to ASHRAE standard 55.

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Conference Paper Session 14
Ventilation Requirements in Health-Care

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Roger Lautz, P.E., Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
The first two papers in this session compare ventilation standards from four countries, the U.S., Germany, The United Kingdom and Spain, for both operating rooms and patient bed areas. The third presentation discusses ventilation requirements in outpatient facilities in the context of both patient protection and energy use.

1  Minimum Ventilation Requirements in Operating and Procedure Rooms: A Comparison of International Standards (ST-16-C040)

Travis R. English, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
Maya Salabasheva, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
There are significant differences in international health care ventilation standards.  This paper is one in a series of benchmarking investigations of those variances. These studies identify and capture best practices from among the international standards.

This paper compares minimum ventilation requirements for operating rooms and procedure rooms, from four international standards. The standards compared are; ASHRAE-170 Ventilation for health care facilities (US),  DIN-1946 – VAC systems in buildings and rooms used in the health care sector (Germany), HTM-03-01 Specialized ventilation for health care premises (UK), and UNE 100713 Instalaciones de acondicionamiento de aire en hospitales (Spain).

The comparison identifies the minimum (i.e. most permissive) ventilation requirements in six different requirement areas:  outdoor air ventilation, total room air ventilation, supply air filter efficiency, room temperature, room humidity and room pressurization.  Results are normalized to common units, compared and discussed in context of the four standards.

2  Minimum Ventilation Requirements in Patient Bed Areas: A Comparison of International Standards (ST-16-C041)

Travis R. English, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
Maya Salabasheva, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
There are significant differences in international health care ventilation standards.  This paper is one in a series of benchmarking investigations of those variances. These studies identify and capture best practices from among the international standards.

This paper compares minimum ventilation requirements for operating rooms and procedure rooms, from four international standards. The standards compared are; ASHRAE-170 Ventilation for health care facilities (US),  DIN-1946 – VAC systems in buildings and rooms used in the health care sector (Germany), HTM-03-01 Specialized ventilation for health care premises (UK), and UNE 100713 Instalaciones de acondicionamiento de aire en hospitales (Spain).

The comparison identifies the minimum (i.e. most permissive) ventilation requirements in six different requirement areas:  outdoor air ventilation, total room air ventilation, supply air filter efficiency, room temperature, room humidity and room pressurization.  Results are normalized to common units, compared and discussed in context of the four standards.

3  Application of Health Care Ventilation Standards to Outpatient Facilities (ST-16-C042)

Maya Salabasheva, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
Travis R. English, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
This paper is a result of tireless pursuit of reducing health sector energy consumption and associated climate footprint.  Fossil fuel combustion related to energy use in buildings produces not only global warming gases such as carbon dioxide, but also series of other pollutants that contribute to the environmental burden of diseases and the increase of healthcare costs.

This paper outlines three alternatives for addressing ventilation in outpatient facilities, within and out of the context of the current ASHRAE Standard 170 “Ventilation for Health Care Facilities”. It compares the current requirements of Standard 170 to those of B occupancy areas in outpatient health care facilities such as medical office buildings (MOBs) and ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs).

11:00 AM-12:00 PM
Seminar 30
It’s Official: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Is for Residential Buildings

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Devin A. Abellon, P.E., Uponor
Technical Committee: 06.05 Radiant Heating and Cooling
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee, SSPC 55
CoSponsor: 02.01 Physiology and Human Environment
In a 2014 official interpretation ASHRAE ruled that Standard 55 is applicable to houses. It has been referenced in ASHRAE 62.2 for many years and is listed as a residential resource at the ASHRAE website. Thermal comfort is becoming a front and center issue in residential buildings. Leading the way in research and Standard develop is ASHRAE SSPC 55 and cognizant committee T.C. 2.1. This seminar gives those interested in using Standard 55, a background in its development, current available modelling tools and how to use it for housing projects.

1  A Practitioner's Guide to ASHRAE Standard 55 in Residential Buildings

Abhijeet Pande, TRC Solutions
In a 2014 official interpretation ASHRAE ruled that Standard 55 is applicable to houses. It has been referenced in ASHRAE 62.2 for many years and is also listed as a residential resource at the ASHRAE website. Thermal comfort is becoming a front and center issue in residential buildings. Leading the way in research and Standard develop is ASHRAE SSPC 55 and cognizant committee T.C. 2.1. This seminar gives those who are interested in using Standard 55 a background in its development, current available modelling tools and how to use it for housing projects.

2  Case Study: Using ASHRAE Standard 55 to Solve Potential Comfort Problems in a Cold Climate Residence

Robert Bean, R.E.T., P.L.(Eng.), Indoor Climate Consultants Inc.
Case study:ASHRAE Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy can be a valuable tool for identifying potential thermal comfort problems in homes. By defining difficult zones, proactive decisions can be made to improve the enclosure in those specific areas and/or develop hybrid mechanical solutions as preventive measures. This seminar demonstrates how the Standard and on-line tool was used to solve potential problem zones in a cold climate residence.

2:15 PM-3:00 PM
Forum 3
Financing for HVAC & Home Energy Improvements: Picking a Program That Works for You and Your Customers (WITHDRAWN - MODERATOR NOT PRESENT)

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Emeline Minor, Spruce Finance
Homeowners often put off home improvements such as upgrading an HVAC unit because they lack financing options. The right financing program can help you close more sales. This session looks at various financing options available to HVAC contractors and anyone working in the home environment industry, and explain how to pick a financing program that supports your business and helps you close more deals.

Tuesday, 28 June 2016

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Conference Paper Session 15
Enhancing Individual and Group Professionalism

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Hyojin Kim, Ph.D., New Jersey Institute of Technology
The profession of engineering is often perceived as a series of mathematical problem solving to achieve an end result. However, the dynamics of engineering and the growth of the profession extend much beyond that. This session provides a look at some unique ways to achieve that. From a presentation on business development that looks at engineering as a “relationship-based” business; to examining how the use of a multidisciplinary design team engaged in conceptual building design from the outset can achieve better results; to the IMPACT of role models in the U.K. to grow the engineering profession; to ways to incentivize women around the world to become engaged in refrigeration engineering.

1.00  Business Development: The Red-Headed Stepchild of Successful Engineering Business Practices (ST-16-C043)

Margaret Felts
Jeff Yirak, P.E., Wood Harbinger
Engineering, as a practice, is based on developing and applying tangible solutions to practical problems through a creative but calculated process. Engineering education at the university level is focused on difficult mathematical equation solving and test-score-based performance metrics. Professional certifications, field experience, and continuing education opportunities further promote technical competence and understanding of systems, equipment, codes and standards. While these forms of education and professional development can be in-depth, demanding and celebrate technical excellence, they overlook a crucial facet of the industry: engineering is a relationship-based business. Strong and diverse relationships with a spectrum of project partners, clients and owners are the backbone of an engineering firm’s health and growth. The ability to develop, nurture and maintain relationships relies on an ability to relate to other people and participate in the fluid process of Business Development. This is a vital component of a successful career in the engineering industry, but developing this skillset is often forgotten or glossed over. Engineers can learn and hone business development skills through outside training sessions and conferences, though concepts learned in the contrived setting of didactic presentation and roleplay can be difficult to adopt “in the wild.” Mentorship from seasoned and successful leaders is an ideal option, but this assumes a firm has such current leaders, and that they have the time and teaching skills to take the next generation of leaders under their wing. An innovative and remarkably effective option is to develop a custom business development training program, tailored to the firm’s values and strategic visions, and delivered by a dedicated BD leader who thoroughly understands these values and visions.  In this “learning by doing” environment, engineers are given the authority and confidence to go out and practice their new skills, knowing that they are contributing to the firm’s business development plan. This paper will present the perspectives of a Business Development Director who developed and is successfully implementing an 18-month, in-house BD training program at her firm, and a next-generation engineering leader who is further refining his business development skills by participating in the program and mentoring other engineers beginning to build up their skills.

2.00  Competences Beyond Engineering: A Mental Model of Conceptual Building Design (ST-16-C045)

Wim Zeiler, Eindhoven University of Technology
New strong demands for a more sustainable built environment led to a more complex building design process. The most important decisions in building design are made in the very early conceptual phase. This happens often when there are no engineers involved yet and so the architect has to make all the decisions on his own. Especially in the conceptual design phase the different expertise of engineers could be used more effectively by architects to reach for new more sustainable solutions. To support diverse multidisciplinary building design teams a supportive design method was developed in cooperation with the Dutch professional organizations of architects and consulting engineers.  It helps architects and engineers with their new role in the conceptual design phase as it enables to structure each perspective on the design task as well as to structure the available domain knowledge by using morphological charts and morphological overviews. After testing the method in workshops as part of a training program in industry, the design method was transferred and applied at the department of architecture for master students for their multidisciplinary Master project Integral Design.  In the last 10 years Master Projects Integral design were held and there was a continuous development to optimize the cooperation between architects and engineers. The research showed that it is possible to engage engineers and let other disciplines learn from them within the conceptual building design phase, which makes it easier to achieve energy efficient and environmental friendly buildings such as nearly Zero Energy Buildings.  Also the approach can be used to analyse the design process and to focus on the communication within the design team as well as use it to represent a kind of mental map of the design team. This helps engineers to interfere with the conceptual design process and add additional knowledge and experience. In this way competences beyond engineering can be added to improve the outcome of the design process.

4  Women in the Refrigeration Industry (ST-16-C046)

Ina Colombo, Ph.D., London South Bank University
The refrigeration industry plays a major and increasing role in today’s global economy, with significant contributions made in food, health, energy and environmental domains which policy makers need to better understand and take into account. The need for engineering and technical staff is currently increasing due to the growing demand for refrigerating capacities, along with the unique skills required of refrigeration-related professions in the field of energy and environment. Women are still significantly and visibly under-represented in the refrigeration industry. The purpose of this paper demonstrates the current preliminary state-of-the-art of women in the refrigeration field collected from the national refrigeration institutions and associations. Incentive actions proposed are proposed are the outcomes of the first meeting of the IIR Women in Refrigeration workshop.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 31
Centrifugal Chiller Design: Back to Basics

HVAC Systems and Equipment
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Rick Heiden, Trane - Ingersoll Rand
Technical Committee: 08.02 Centrifugal Machines
Centrifugal chillers are broadly employed in building air conditioning systems. Recent advances in chiller component performance have substantially reduced chiller power consumption, improved machine responsiveness and reduced footprint. This presentation provides HVAC professionals more technical insight into the chiller components along with design practices used by heat transfer, controls and systems engineers in developing state of the art equipment. This seminar builds on Seminar 21 from the 2015 ASHRAE Conference in Atlanta, “Centrifugal Compressor Design: Back to Basics.”

1  Chiller Heat Exchanger Components

Thomas Kelly, Carrier Corporation
The vessel used as the Evaporator of a centrifugal chiller is described for different applications ranging from Brazed-Plate, DX Shell and Tube and the more normal Flooded Shell-and-Tube type.  The market is water cooled centrifugal chillers, so the Condenser described will be a shell-and–tube vessel.  Other condenser sources such as a once-thru system will be discussed and a comparison of pros and cons will be shown.  The impact of oil and oil free systems and metering is compared along with existing ASHRAE Research Projects. A discussion on heat transfer and  tubing is also included.

2  Chiller System Operation

Seth Gladfelter, Johnson Controls, Inc.
This presentation discusses the system components that make up a centrifugal chiller.  Operational maps of centrifugal chillers will be detailed.  The presenter discusses how operating conditions affect overall system efficiency of the equipment, and also describe how centrifugal chillers react to changes in operating conditions.  Also, the differences between fixed speed and variable speed chiller’s reactions to these changes in load are shown.

3  Chiller Controls

Scott Munns, Ingersoll Rand
This session describes the core internal controls of a centrifugal chiller, illustrating the features and functions identified in the handbook chapters. While many chiller controls are related to efficiently providing cooling, others protect the chiller from “hurting” itself. New code requirements and trends in communication protocols will be discussed. The presenter identifies variations in the add and subtract sequences for pumping and piping configurations in multiple chiller plants.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 32
HVAC Controls for Smart Grid Applications

Research Summit
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Reinhard Radermacher, Ph.D., University of Maryland
Sponsor: Publishing and Education Council
This session offers presentations based on a select group of recently published papers from the ASHRAE journal, "Science and Technology in the Built Environment," regarding the relevance of use of heat pumps in the smart grid context, and HVAC chiller control for power grid frequency regulation.

1  Smart Grid Energy Flexible Buildings through the Use of Heat Pumps in the Belgian Context

Gabrielle Masy, Ph.D., University of Liege
Emeline Georges, University of Liege
Clara Verhelst, Ph.D., University of Liege
Vincent Lemort, University of Liege
Philippe André, Dr.Ing., University of Liège
The management of electricity grids requires the supply and demand of electricity to be in balance at any point in time. Electricity suppliers tend to minimize their procurement costs by offering consumers time-of-use variable electricity tariffs as an incentive to shift their demand from peak to off-peak hours. Typical new residential buildings are considered, equipped with air-to-water heat pumps that supply either radiators or floor heating system. The energy market is represented through time-varying electricity price profile. Different heating control strategies are compared in terms of thermal comfort, energy use, cost and flexibility, ranging from rule-based to predictive optimized control.

2  Demonstration of HVAC Chiller Control for Power Grid Frequency Regulation

Leo Su
Leslie Norford, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institution of Technology
Stable operation of electric power systems requires power supply and demand to be matched on multiple time scales. For short time intervals of seconds to minutes, balance is generally achieved by actively controlling grid resources based on frequency deviations – hence the term frequency regulation. This presentation explores the practicality of using HVAC chillers as a demand side resource to provide frequency regulation ancillary service. Experiments were conducted on two commercial buildings in Boston. Results are discussed in the context of PJM Interconnection’s performance requirements and market structure.

3  Smart Grid Coordination in Building HVAC Systems: Computational Efficiency of Constrained Eloc

Donald Chmielewski, Ph.D.
David Mendoza-Serrano, Ph.D.
In the context of day-ahead electricity prices, the method of Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC) has been shown to provide expenditure reduction in building HVAC systems with thermal energy storage. However, these reductions can only be achieved if the EMPC prediction horizon is sufficiently large. This work develops an alternate controller, constrained economic linear optimal control (CELOC), and shows that CELOC will yield performance similar to large-horizon EMPC but with a virtual insensitivity to horizon size. Thus, application of CELOC will require a fraction of the computational effort while yielding nearly identical economic performance.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 33
Innovation in a Commercial Refrigeration System with Natural Refrigerants and Low GWP Synthetic Refrigerants

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Shitong Zha, Ph.D., HILLPHOENIX
Technical Committee: 10.07 Commercial Food and Beverage Cooling Display and Storage
Sponsor: MTG.LowGWP
This seminar presents the most recent study of commercial refrigeration system using natural refrigerants such as CO2, ammonia propane, ammonia and R600a and low GWP synthetic blends. How to successfully convert light commercial refrigeration applications originally designed for R134a to natural refrigerants? What is performance and energy consumption of a Low-charge ammonia chiller installation and a propane freezer compared to traditional HFC systems? How to improve the efficiency of stand-alone applications with low GWP synthetic refrigerants?

1  Natural, Low-GWP Refrigerants for Light Commercial Refrigeration: Examples of Successfully Converted Applications Using R290, R600a and R744

Stefan Elbel, Ph.D., Creative Thermal Solutions and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Presented are a number of light commercial applications that were successfully converted for use with natural, low-GWP refrigerants. Among them are a chilled juice dispenser, originally designed for R134a, that was redesigned for use with transcritical carbon dioxide (R744). Another system successfully converted for use with a natural refrigerant was a platelet incubator typically used in pharmaceutical laboratories. The original R134a refrigeration system was redesigned to accommodate isobutane (R600a). Finally, several glass door merchandisers have been converted successfully to both propane (R290) and carbon dioxide. The technical challenges of each of these conversions will be presented and discussed in detail.

2  Reducing GWP with a Low Charge Ammonia/CO2 Chiller

Scott Mitchell, Southern California Edison
Ammonia is known to be one of the most energy efficient refrigerants, but its use has mainly been limited to large industrial system applications. Low-charge ammonia chiller technologies recently introduced to the U.S. market have the potential to improve efficiency in many commercial refrigeration applications while addressing previously-held concerns. The presentation showcases an ammonia chiller installation in Irvine, California and share preliminary performance information compared to the existing R-507A system.

3  Decreasing Environmental Impact by Using Propane in Refrigerated Display Cases

Sean Gouw, P.E., Southern California Edison
Shifting to low-GWP refrigerants can drastically reduce the potential for greenhouse gas emissions from refrigerant leaks while improving energy efficiency. SCE recently completed laboratory testing of commercial freezer cases with R-404a and R-290 (propane). Results, including temperature and energy performance are shared along with potential plans for energy efficiency and low-GWP refrigerant rebates in California.

4  Advanced Low-GWP Alternatives for Stand-Alone Refrigeration Systems

Michael Petersen, Creative Thermal Solutions, Inc.
Gustavo Pottker, Honeywell - Buffalo Research Laboratory
This presentation focuses on the application of low global warming potential (GWP) alternative fluids for commercial stand-alone applications. The presented non-flammable and mildly flammable molecules will cover HFO’s and HFO blends which provide lower or very low GWP (below 150). Experimental system test data as well as thermodynamic simulation and design characteristics are discussed compared to current solutions to underline the performance of these new fluid options.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 34
Low-Cost High-Performance Building Simulation: Is That Too Good to Be True?

Research Summit
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Wangda Zuo, Ph.D., University of Miami
Technical Committee: 04.07 Energy Calculations
Building simulation can be used to help achieve energy efficient buildings. However, contemporary building simulation tends to be computationally intensive, which prevents building simulation from being widely applied in the real building process such as building design and operation. This seminar invites experts from both academic and industrial field to share ideas regarding how they improve the performance of different building simulations in terms of the computing demand and cost by taking full advance of cutting-edge computing technologies.

1  Fast Answers to Complex Problems for Dummies

Nathaniel Jones, MIT
Generally, modelers must accept either long wait times or devise clever shortcuts or simplifications. Parallel computation allows simulations to run many times faster, which often means that less involvement is required from the modeler, and graphics processing hardware is increasingly putting parallel computation in the hands of individuals. Case studies involving radiant heat exchange will be presented showing the speedup of complex simulations on highly parallel graphics processors that reduce both human and computer hours spent on simulation. The results show how parallel simulation hardware and software lead to time and cost savings in design and to more efficient buildings.

2  Building Energy Simulation Workflows in the Age of Low Cost Computing

David Bosworth, BUILDlab, LLC
Until recently the infrastructure and knowledge required to employ massively parallel computing techniques for building energy simulation was restricted to national labs and the largest engineering firms.  Now that cloud computing resources, and the tools to use them without needing a doctorate in computer science, are available and cheap running one simulation is just as easy as running a hundred. This seminar explores how these tools are affecting and enhancing the building energy modeler's workflow and our ability to understand ourselves and communicate to our customers how buildings behave and where the best opportunities for energy efficiency are positioned.

3  Using High Performance Computers to Improve Foundation Heat Transfer Calculations

Neal Kruis, Ph.D., Big Ladder Software
Foundation heat transfer calculations for annual energy simulation is a complicated three-dimensional problem that can require days or weeks to solve using traditional numerical approaches. This presentation demonstrates how high performance computing enables the exploration of the parameters that impact both computation time and accuracy. By applying new calculation approaches, the computation time can be reduced to a matter of seconds while still maintaining greater than 97% accuracy.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 35
Air Change Rates: Philosophy and Practice

Fundamentals and Applications
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kishor Khankari, Ph.D., AnSight LLC
Technical Committee: 09.11 Clean Spaces
Sponsor: 9.6
CoSponsor: 09.10 Laboratory Systems
Air Change Rates (ACR) are often specified in standards, codes and design guidelines as supply airflow requirements for healthcare, cleanrooms, laboratories and other similar facilities. This legacy practice has been implemented for several decades. With increased awareness of energy efficiency and cost of HVAC operations it is essential now to review this philosophy. This seminar provides historical perspective; current practices and recommendations; and pros and cons of ACR philosophy in the three major industry sectors. In addition the importance of supply airflow path and the distribution of the supply air on effectiveness of contaminant removal will also be presented.

1  ACR Philosophy and Practice: Health-Care Facilities

Travis R. English, P.E., Kaiser Permanente
Health care facilities are the only spaces where an ASHRAE-authored standard uses air changes exclusively. This presentation looks at the origins of health care ACRs, their intents, and changes over time. It discusses the outcomes addressed by those ACRs, and how those same outcomes could be addressed using alternate methodologies.  It also looks at some of the leading health care air quality management strategies used abroad, and how those could be adopted domestically.

2  ACR Philosophy and Practice: Laboratory Systems

Thomas Smith, Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
People working in laboratories rely on proper operation of laboratory hoods and ventilation systems to prevent over exposure to hazardous airborne contaminants generated during scientific procedures.  Lab safety can depend on the quantity and distribution of airflow.  The OSHA Laboratory Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450 and other relevant standards recommend between 4 air changes per hour (ACH) and 12 ACH of one pass air.  There is little guidance on correlating risk with ACH and assessing the effectiveness of contaminant dilution and removal.  This paper explores specification of ACH for labs and the impact on lab safety and energy efficiency.

3  ACR Philosophy and Practice: Cleanrooms

Philip Naughton, Applied Materials Inc
Cleanrooms typically rely upon air change rates to help maintain a given cleanliness class. Air change rates can vary between 2 ACH to well over 500 ACH. There is much anecdotal data supporting a correlation between cleanroom cleanliness and the air change rates with little empirical data. Many cleanroom owners are compelled by regulating authorities to maintain high air change rates. This presentation reviews the current regulatory guidance for cleanroom air change rates as well as present data on cleanrooms that have been able to reduce their air change rates and still maintain their required cleanliness.

4  Analysis of Airflow Paths and Contaminant Removal Effectiveness

Kishor Khankari, Ph.D., AnSight LLC
Air Change Rates are often specified assuming well mixed conditions in the spaces to achieve overall dilution of contaminants. Actual distribution of contaminants in the space are seldom uniform and depends on several factors including the locations of air supply and returns, strengths and location of contaminant sources, and strength and locations of heat sources. The flow path of contaminants in the space play important role in determining the concentration levels and overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. This presentation demonstrates how airflow paths affect the effectiveness of contaminant removal in patient rooms, cleanrooms, and laboratories.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 36
Standard 62.2-2016 Revisions and Impacts

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Max H. Sherman, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
Sponsor: Residential Building Committee
Standard 62.2 is the most used and only ANSI-approved residential ventilation standard in the country. It has continuously evolved to meet the needs of the residential market since 2003. The latest version is just hitting the streets now. It covers a larger span of the market than before, includes new flexibilities and provides a host of small improvements. This seminar teaches the new compliance requirements, discusses what has changed, examines the application of the revised standard in existing homes and describes ongoing initiatives and options being explored by the committee.

1  Standard 62.2-2016: Overview and Major New Changes

Paul W. Francisco, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
The 2016 edition of ASHRAE Standard 62.2 – Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality for Residential Buildings – has just been released.  This presentation provides an overview of the standard’s requirements, as well as a brief discussion of addenda that have been incorporated since the 2013 edition, including two significant scope changes.

2  Tips and Traps for Existing Home Ventilation Strategies Under 62.2

Richard Karg, Residential Energy Dynamics
Application of Standard 62.2 in existing homes can range from relatively easy to exceptionally challenging depending on age of the home, its physical characteristics, and quality of construction.  This presentation provides guidance on cost-effective compliance with 62.2 in existing homes while avoiding unintended consequences.

3  Equivalence and Superposition in ASHRAE 62.2

Iain Walker, Ph.D., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Standard 62.2-2016 added a new section that includes provisions for real-time tracking of variable ventilation.  Smart ventilation controls are permitted to shift ventilation from times of high energy penalty to lower energy penalty, with the potential for significant ventilation-related energy savings. An ongoing initiative within the committee is an improvement to the calculations that combine natural infiltration with mechanical ventilation. These new calculation methods are intended to account for non-linear air flow interactions. This presentation discusses the technical background behind these changes and give examples of application of the new calculations.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 37
The Impact of Net Zero Energy Buildings on the Electric Grid

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kristen Cetin, Ph.D., P.E., Iowa State University
Technical Committee: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
In recent years there have been significant efforts to implement net zero energy (NZE) buildings throughout the United States. This seminar covers several of these recent efforts, highlighting various alternative energy systems and new design strategies to reach NZE as well as how these buildings interact with the electric grid.

1  Net Zero Energy: What Metric to Use?

Jon McHugh, P.E., McHugh Energy Consultants Inc.
Before we know if a building has achieved Zero Net Energy (ZNE) status, we must know which metric is being used in the ZNE evaluation. The seminar presents the various metrics and their pros and cons being used in the ZNE definition from Site energy to Time Dependent Valuation energy and everything in between as well as their impact on the building systems design and energy code compliance.

2  The Net Zero Roadmap: The Net Zero Plus Electrical Training Institute

Brett Moss, Electrical Training Institute
Utilizing the Net Zero Plus Electrical Training Institute facility (one of the largest net zero commercial retrofits in the United States) as a dynamic case study, this presentation provides a roadmap to achieving zero net energy (ZNE) including discussion on the research, design strategies, and engineering processes that maximize energy efficiency and reduce consumption and costs. The presenter also discusses renewable energy systems and advanced technologies including microgrid systems paired with battery energy storage and measurement and verification (M&V) systems for achieving and maintaining ZNE status. Discussions also include various ZNE financing mechanisms and rebates.

3  Reaching Net Zero Energy: Single-Family Home Retrofit Strategies

Carlos Haiad, P.E., JCH Energy Management Solutions, Inc.
Significant attention has been given to get residential new construction to reach zero net energy (ZNE) as already seen in many city (e.g. Austin), county (e.g., Tucson-Prima) and state (e.g., California) energy code requirements. This presentation focuses on retrofitting single-family homes to reach ZNE status. The presentation provides the results of retrofitting three blocks of homes with different levels of energy efficiency measures, demand response strategies, renewable energy systems, battery energy storage units, and electric vehicles charging stations in the quest to reach ZNE. The presentation also highlights potential electric grid impact of some of these technologies.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Workshop 7
Answering the Call:  Encouraging Code Adoption and Enforcement with Policy Leaders

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Keith H. Reihl, P.E., Reihl Engineering
Sponsor: Grassroots Government Advocacy Committee
Within the past several years legislation has been introduced in virtually every state which would extend current code cycles beyond the traditional three year cycle. It is important for ASHRAE members to work with policymakers to stress the importance of maintaining the three-year code cycle to ensure that states and local jurisdictions incorporate the latest techniques and practices into their minimum codes, while providing ease of application. This workshop informs members and conference attendees how they can educate policymakers at the state and local levels.

1  Demystifying State and Local Code Development and Adoption

Sara Yerkes
This presentation describes the often misunderstood processes by which code officials adopt, amend, and implement building energy codes and model standards such as the International Energy Conservation Code and Standard 90.1. Tips will also be provided for how ASHRAE members can become involved with these processes.

2  Best Practices for Working with State Energy Officials

David Terry, National Association of State Energy Officials
This presentation describes how ASHRAE members can effectively work with state energy officials to encourage the adoption and implementation of the most recent editions of the model building energy codes.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Technical Paper Session 7
Climate Prediction and Load Shifting

Fundamentals and Applications
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Alamelu Brooks, ICF International
The results of numerical modeling and observed data are shared in these two papers. The first paper provides the results of ASHRAE Research Project RP-1561, "Procedures to Adjust Observed Climatic Data for Regional or Mesoscale Variations” and the latter shows that precooling strategies in residential buildings in the Phoenix, Arizona climate offer significant peak energy demand savings.

1  Mesoscale Climate Modeling Procedure Development and Performance Evaluation (RP-1561) (ST-16-019)

Xin Qiu, Ph.D., Novus Environmental Inc.
Michael Roth, Ph.D., Klimaat
Hamish Corbett-Hains, Novus Environmental Inc.
Fuquan Yang, Ph.D., Novus Environmental Inc.
This paper presents the results of research project RP-1561, “Procedures to Adjust Observed Climatic Data for Regional or Mesoscale Variations”. This project included a WRF modeling campaign designed to cover ten significant climate regions across North America. Model results were compared against mesoscale monitoring data in order to assess the model’s performance for a single year’s hourly weather. Subsequently, a long-term climate model evaluation was performed by running WRF over 4 regions in North America for 8 years. Overall, the model performed well against observed temperature and humidity, reasonably well against observed wind, and relatively poorly against observed solar and precipitation. Guided by this evaluation, a complete mesoscale numerical modeling procedure was developed for coastal, mountain valleys, mountain plateaus, and major city centers, to provide site-specific climate data, i.e., a freely-available software solution for developing localized climate data.

2  Modeling and Testing Multiple Precooling Strategies in Three Residential Building Types in the Phoenix Climate (ST-16-020)

Reza Arababadi, Arizona State University
Kristen Parrish, Ph.D., Arizona State University
As air-conditioning demand increased significantly during the last decade, efficient energy use has become more important due to large electric power demands and limited reserves of fossil fuel. Electrical energy use fluctuates significantly during a 24-hour day due to variable demand from industrial, commercial and residential activities. In hot and cold climates, the dominant part of the load fluctuation is due to cooling and heating demands, respectively. If electric loads could be shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, not only would building operation costs decrease, the need to run peaker plants, which typically use more fossil fuels than non-peaker plants, would also decrease. Thus, shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak hours promotes economic and environmental savings. This paper utilizes simulation and experimental work to examine a total of twelve precooling strategies in three residential buildings in the Phoenix, Arizona climate. The selected buildings are considered to represent majority of residential buildings in the area. Results of this project show that precooling can save up to 46% of peak energy demand in a home constructed with concrete or cementitious block and up to 35% in wood frame homes. Homeowners can save up to US $244/year in block construction and up to US $119/year in wood frame homes.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Workshop 8
How to Predict the Long-Term Success of Your Green Design: The Five Characteristics that Determine Technology Adoption

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kevin Brown, P.E., The Linc Group
Technical Committee: 02.08 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability
CoSponsor: 01.07 Business, Management & General Legal Education
Have you ever wondered why a new technology is readily accepted by some but resisted by others? In this workshop, discover the five characteristics of any technology or strategy that will determine its chances of being adopted successfully on projects. Based on technology adoption research from Everett Roger's "Diffusion of Innovations," learn to be more strategic when selecting design options for projects. The goal of this simple technique is to choose the best options for clients - ones that will be embraced and maintained for the life of the building.

1  How to Predict the Long-Term Success of Your Green Design: The Five Characteristics That Determine Technology Adoption

Joy Altwies, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wisconsin-Madison
Have you ever wondered why a new technology is readily accepted by some, but resisted by others?  In this workshop, you’ll discover the 5 characteristics of any technology or strategy that will determine its chances of being adopted successfully on your projects.  Based on technology adoption research from Everett Roger’s "Diffusion of Innovations", you can learn to be more strategic when selecting design options for your projects.  The goal of this simple technique is to choose the best options for your clients – ones that will be embraced and maintained for the life of the building.

2  Facilitator for Session

E. Mitchell Swann, P.E., MDCSystems
Mitchell Swann will assist in this workshop as a facilitator.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 16
Advances in Desiccant Technology

HVAC Systems and Equipment
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kyle Knudten, McClure Engineering
Desiccant systems, both liquid and dry, can be effective in increasing the use of outside air for improved IAQ without degrading energy efficiency. This session explores advancements in desiccant technology as well as improvement in system design and modeling through the use of hybrid systems combining desiccant and evaporative components.

1  Achieving Comfort and Energy Savings Using Desiccant Technologies (ST-16-C047)

Mark Piegay, Alfa Laval - Kathabar
This seminar discusses the use of dry and liquid desiccant technologies and how to apply them creatively for the treatment outside air.  This includes a design that utilizes a combination of cooling tower water, chilled water and hot water that modulates with the outside air loads to either cool or heat the liquid desiccant to provide dehumidification or humidification of the outside air. Then, waste heat or onsite power generation to regenerate the liquid desiccant solution. A comparison of the two technologies will be presented and the opportunities for both to provide comfort and energy savings to meet ventilation codes.

2  A Variable Volume and Temperature (VVT) Control Strategy for a Liquid-Desiccant and Dew Point Evaporative Cooler-Assisted 100% Outdoor Air System (LDEOS) (ST-16-C048)

Sang-Woo Ham, Hanyang University
Hui-Jeong Kim, Division of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University
Sang-Hyeon Cho, Division of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University
Jae-Weon Jeong, Ph.D., Hanyang University
The main purpose of this study is to propose a variable volume and temperature (VVT) control strategy for a liquid-desiccant and dew point evaporative cooling-assisted 100% outdoor air system (LDEOS) and evaluate its performance on a Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). For decades, various alternative air-conditioning technologies have been developed to reduce refrigerant use and energy consumption. Among them, many studies have been conducted on a liquid-desiccant (LD) and indirect evaporative cooling-assisted system because it independently controls the sensible and latent load and reduces cooling energy by using latent heat of water vaporization. In previous studies, the LDEOS, which conditions a space by using 100% outdoor air, is proposed by combining membrane enthalpy exchanger (MEE), LD, and dew point evaporative cooler (DP-IEC). Unlike the energy performance and the design process, few studies were conducted on the control strategies of the LDEOS. In the control strategy of a general variable-air-volume (VAV) system, the controller maintains a constant supply air temperature (SAT) for dehumidification control. However, the SAT control is hard to be implemented for an indirect evaporative cooler if VAV fan is applied. In this study, a variable-air-volume and temperature (VVT) control is presented for the LDEOS. In VVT, the cooling capacity is controlled by the fan airflow, but the SAT is not controlled. In the LDEOS, the dehumidification control is achieved by the LD, and thus, the SAT does not need to be modulated. The VVT control was realized on a BCVTB in a one-minute time step and evaluated its performance. The simulation result revealed that the proposed control strategy maintained a space comfortable while saving 35% of fan energy compared to the reheating-based constant SAT control strategy.

3  Energy Performance of a Liquid Desiccant and Evaporative Cooling-Assisted 100% Outdoor Air System in Commercial Ships (ST-16-C049)

Joonyoung Park, Ph.D., Hanyang University
SungJoon Lee, M.D., Hanyang University
Dongseob Yoon, M.D., Hanyang University
Jae-Weon Jeong, Ph.D., Hanyang University
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the energy performance of a liquid desiccant and indirect/direct evaporative cooling-assisted 100% outdoor air system (LD-IDECOAS) in a commercial passenger ship. The LD-IDECOAS consists of a liquid desiccant system, and indirect and direct evaporative cooler (IEC and DEC) for dehumidification, and sensible and adiabatic cooling of process air. This system was applied to cooling source from seawater and heating source was considered engine waste heat recovery system. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) regression model from the existing literature was adapted as the waste heat recovery (WHR) system to evaluate waste heat thermal efficiency. For estimating the energy performance of the LD-IDECOAS, annual energy simulation is conducted for two cabins. The area of each cabin is 16.5m2. The required thermal load of passenger cabins is estimated by according to ISO-7547 considering the typical operation condition. Consequent operating energy consumption of LD-IDECOAS is determined by using a commercial equation solver program.  The energy performance of the proposed system is compared with the conventional commercial passenger ship air conditioning system, which is using absorption chillers, for estimating the energy saving potential of the proposed system.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 38
ASHRAE Research: Airflow and Ducts

Research Summit
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Reinhard Radermacher, Ph.D., University of Maryland
Technical Committee: 01.02 Instruments and Measurements
Sponsor: Publishing and Education Council
This session offers presentations based on a select group of recently published papers from the ASHRAE journal, "Science and Technology in the Built Environment," regarding the influence of single-path and multiple-path duct disturbances on volumetric air flow rate measurements, and the development of guidelines for more accurate volumetric airflow measurements in rectangular ducts during test and balance operations of rectangular ducts during test and balance operations.

1  Effect of Fittings on Volumetric Airflow Measurements (RP-1245): Single-Path Duct Disturbances

Craig Hickman
Terry Beck, Ph.D., Kansas State University
Bruce Babin, Highland Park High School
The objectives of this presentation are to quantify the influence of several single-path duct disturbances on volumetric air flow rate measurements using traversing techniques, and to develop guidelines for field technicians to assist them in making more accurate volumetric airflow measurements in rectangular ducts during test and balance operations. Data are presented that attempt to quantify the error caused by the distance from single-path disturbances (straight ducts, elbows, 60º and 90º transitions) to a given airflow measurement (traverse) location, using both thermal anemometer and Pitot-static probes. The traversing algorithms used were the Log-Tchebycheff (LT) method and Equal Area (EA) method.

2  Effect of Fittings on Volumetric Airflow Measurements (RP-1245): Multiple-Path (tee) Duct Disturbances

Terry Beck, Ph.D., Kansas State University
Craig Hickman, SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.
Bruce Babin, Highland Park High School
The objectives of this presentation are to quantify the influence of several multiple-path (tee) duct disturbances on volumetric air flow rate measurements using traversing techniques, and to develop guidelines for field technicians to assist them in making more accurate volumetric airflow measurements downstream of diverging tee fittings during test and balance operations. Data are presented to quantify the error caused by the distance from multiple-path disturbances (diverging tees) to a given airflow measurement (traverse) taken in the branch downstream, using both thermal anemometer and Pitot-static probes. The traversing algorithms used were the Log-Tchebycheff (LT) method and Equal Area (EA) method.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 39
Data Sources toward Urban-Scale Energy Modeling, Part 1

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Joshua New, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Technical Committee: 01.05 Computer Applications
Development of urban-scale building energy models is becoming of increased interest for many applications including city-wide energy supply/demand strategies, urban development planning, electrical grid stability and urban resilience. This seminar has assembled several leaders in the field of urban-scale energy models to discuss an overview of the field as well as the data, algorithms, workflow and practical challenges addressed to create useful models of individual buildings at the scale of a city.

1  Improving Urban Building Energy Models (UBEM) through Building Archetype Calibration

Carlos Davila, Ph.D.
Significant research effort is developing urban building energy modeling (UBEM) tools, which allow evaluating city-wide energy demand and supply strategies. In order to characterize simulation data inputs for buildings, these are typically grouped into representative “archetypes” which simplify models and impact accuracy. The work presented addresses the current state of the UBEM field and presents the application for the City of Boston of an automated simulation workflow based on available GIS datasets. Then, a probabilistic calibration model for archetypes is proposed and validated for yearly and monthly energy use in districts in Kuwait and Cambridge.

2  Urban-Scale Energy Analyses of the Built Environment

Yeonsook Heo, Ph.D., University of Cambridge
Ruchi Choudhary, University of Cambridge
The use of transient computer simulations for quantifying energy use of individual buildings is now standard in both research and industry. However, their use has been computationally prohibitive at the larger scales of districts and cities. We present a new simulation platform that offers a spatially differentiated, hourly analysis of energy consumed by the built environment. The City of Westminster, within central London, was chosen for the first pilot application due to diversity of building types and high-energy demand. This seminar highlights the challenges associated with its development, as well how it supports the assessment of energy systems in cities.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 40
Facebook and Social Media: Guidelines and Best Practices for Groups

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Cynthia Moreno, T&M Mechanical Sales Company
Sponsor: Electronic Communications Committee
Social media is always changing and evolving, with new sites and tools being added constantly. With so many options, how does one determine which tool or site will work best for their group or business? This presentation covers best practices of some of the most common social media forums (Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Pinterest, Instagram and YouTube) with emphasis on social media tools for ASHRAE chapters. Learn some dos and don’ts for using social media to market your group and increase your online presence.

1  Facebook and Social Media

Heather Schopplein, P.E., Haldeman Inc
Social media is always changing and evolving, with new sites and tools being added constantly. With so many options, how does one determine which tool or site will work best for their group or business? This presentation covers best practices of some of the most common social media forums (Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Pinterest, Instagram, and YouTube) with emphasis on social media tools for ASHRAE chapters. Learn some do’s and don’ts for using social media to market your group and increase your online presence.

2  Facebook and Social Media: Guidelines and Best Practices for Groups

Pamela Duffy, P.E., Lennox International
Social media is always changing and evolving, with new sites and tools being added constantly. With so many options, how does one determine which tool or site will work best for their group or business? This presentation covers best practices of some of the most common social media forums (Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Pinterest, Instagram, and YouTube) with emphasis on social media tools for ASHRAE chapters. Learn some do’s and don’ts for using social media to market your group and increase your online presence.

10:30 AM-12:00 PM
Seminar TC
Safeguarding Critical Facility Operation: Hardening Essential Equipment to Survive Seismic Wind and Flood

HVAC Systems and Equipment
230 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Robert E. Simmons, P.E., Petra Seismic Design, LLC
Technical Committee: 02.07 Seismic and Wind Restraint Design
OPEN SESSION: no badge required; no PDHs awarded; presented during the TCs meeting. This seminar provides a practical guide in planning, testing and design considerations to help ensure equipment will meet IBC requirements to keep critical facilities up and running. Jim Carlson of Seismic-Source International presents "FEMA P-1019 Emergency Power Systems for Critical Facilities: A Best Practice Guide to Improving Survival." John Giuliano of Vibration Mountings & Controls presents "Lessons Learned From Shake Table Testing." Steve Stoyanac of Chillicothe Metal Company, Inc. presents "Certifying Your Genset Will Work after an Earthquake or Storm."

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Technical Paper Session 8
Heat Transfer through Novel Envelope and Heat Exchanger Designs

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Ratnesh Tiwari, Ph.D., University of Maryland
This session presents an experimental methodology suited to the determination of the SHGC of STPV windows; the numerical heat transfer performance and flow development in three different corrugated channels using different rib shapes (Trapezoidal, Triangle and semi-circular); a field monitoring study and numerical modeling investigation of the performance of vacuum insulation panels as a high-efficiency wall insulation system for use in retrofit construction applications; and the effects of nanoparticle dispersion in melting of a phase change material (PCM) in a triplex-tube heat exchanger heated under constant surface temperature conditions.

1.00  Melting of PCM with Nanoparticles in a Triplex-Tube Thermal Energy Storage System (ST-16-022)

Emmanuel C. Nsofor, CEng, Southern Illinois University
Jasim M. Mahdi, Southern Illinois University
Environmental concerns and limited energy supply today make energy storage to be very important especially in solar energy utilization. The latent heat storage method has the advantage of storing a large amount of energy in a relatively small volume. Achieving thermal energy storage with latent heat application using Phase Change materials (PCMs) involves the heat of fusion at the solid-liquid phase transition. The problem with today’s PCMs is that their very low thermal conductivity values severely limit their energy storage capability. This also makes the melting and solidification times to be too long for meeting the desired results. Investigations to solve this problem include improved design configurations and addition of nanoparticles to the PCM to enhance the thermal conductivity. This study is on the effects of nanoparticle dispersion in melting of a phase change material (PCM) in a triplex-tube heat exchanger heated under constant surface temperature conditions. The governing equations for the configuration and process were discretized via finite volume method and solved numerically. The model developed, which was validated shows good agreement when compared to a previous related experimental study. The computations were performed for nanoparticle volume fractions ranging from 1% to 3%. The results which are shown in the form of isotherms and contours of the solid – liquid interface over different periods of charging time are presented and discussed. The results show an enhancement in the melting rate with doping nanoparticles of different volumetric concentrations. The results also show melting time saving of 17% as a result of adding nanoparticles to the PCM. This is for nanoparticle volume fraction of 1%. Higher volume fractions were found to not result in significant melting time savings for the process in the triplex-tube heat exchanger.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 41
Fellows Debate: Productivity is the Measure of Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Larry Spielvogel, P.E., Consulting Engineer
Sponsor: College of Fellows, Indoor Air Quality Association
In the Fellows Debate both sides of a controversial subject are debated. Can productivity be measured? Does perception of comfort increase productivity, or is it irrelevant? The science of IAQ is implied in the requirements of standards and other guidance documents. Can the designer and commissioning engineer apply the science effectively? Are comfort, sense of well-being and of health measures of productivity? Is personal productivity a true measure in buildings such as operating theaters and data centers? Can existing science support performance-based definitions? Legally, can the designer or operator be liable for health or productivity or any other such outcome?

  Fellows Debate Session Slides

Larry Spielvogel, P.E., Consulting Engineer
These are session slides.

1  Speaker 1

William Bahnfleth, Ph.D., P.E., Pennsylvania State University
Will speak 1st in the debate

2  Speaker 2

Lawrence Schoen, P.E., Schoen Engineering Inc
Will speak 2nd in the debate

3  Speaker 3

Don Beaty, P.E., DLB Associates
Will speak 3rd in the debate

4  Speaker 4

Richard Rooley, FREng, Project Management Partnership
Will speak 4th in the debate.

5  Speaker 5

Derrick A. Denis, Clark Seif Clark, Inc. (CSC)
Will speak 5th in the debate.

6  Speaker 6

Donald Weekes, CIH, CSP, InAIR Environmental Ltd.

Will speak 6th in the debate.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 42
Heat and Cooling with Woody Biomass for Sustainable and Resilient Buildings and Communities

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Frank Mills, Low Carbon Design Consultants
Technical Committee: 09.08 Large Building Air-Conditioning Applications
Sponsor: 6.09, 8.03 and 6.02
Combining a high capacity factor renewable heat source, thermal storage and absorption cooling expands Near-Net-Zero building and district energy opportunities. Woody biomass offers solar-derived heat on demand; implemented together, these three technologies assure comfort, with savings in power consumption, cost and emissions. Engineers add resilience potential by adapting thermal systems to support safe occupancy during and after disruptive events, like wide-area weather caused grid failure and disrupted delivery of petroleum based fuels for emergency generators and HVAC. Functional buildings data illustrates qualitative and economic value opportunities for efficient, low impact daily operation and resilience in the face of adversity.

1  Role of Thermal Storage in Solving Emissions and Building Overheat Problems with Wood-Fired HVAC

Khaled A. Yousef, P.E., Pyramid Energy Engineering Services, PLLC
This session presents up-to-date theory and tools important in specifying low emissions high efficiency bio-thermal HVAC systems.  Hydronic distribution incorporating advanced heat storage technology and digital firing control stabilizes combustion, eliminates excess cycling, and prevents low-fire air emissions without overheating occupied spaces. Principles apply to all types of solid biomass fuel. Woody biomass is an inexpensive, widely available and renewable heat source.  By learning about equipment and processes  already in commercial service engineers will be able to specify wood-fired HVAC systems without  the risks, delays and extra cost of “re-inventing"

2  Renewable Heat On-Demand: A Clean Source That's Too Valuable to Waste

John Karakash, Resource Professionals Group
Sustainable renewability of woody biomass fuel is reviewed, in the context of energy uses with the greatest  thermal use efficiency and local sourcing potential.  Biothermal heat and cooling systems enabling Near-Net-Zero status implement advanced equipment, technologies and methods commercially applied with success around the world, but underutilized in North America. Topics covered: fuel (quantification, preventing known handling problems, and source sustainability) and factors enhancing economic and environmental potential: (non-electric cooling driven by renewable heat, low-cost tools to evaluate single and multi-building opportunities and optimizing thermal capacity to reduce capital cost.

3  The Proof Is in the Performance: Experiences and Data from Real-World Facilities

Jürgen Scharfe, P.E., JS Energie & Beratung GmbH
Operating history is the most reliable tool for evaluating whether good ideas really worked in practice.  This segment provides that background for risk sensitive building energy designers considering the value potential and best practices to follow in specifying these emerging technologies. Results data is presented for facilities employing biothermal HVAC as commercial practice.  Functional reliability, convenience, compliance with air quality rules, electricity consumption, peak demand effects, economic performance compared with predictions and occupant satisfaction are addressed.  Efforts that were employed to build awareness about the advanced systems and increase their market penetration will be described.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 43
Lubrication Effects Beyond the Compressor

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Joseph A. Karnaz, CPI Fluid Engineering/Lubrizol
Technical Committee: 03.04 Lubrication
CoSponsor: 03.03 Refrigerant Contaminant Control
Lubricants are an essential component to effective operation of air conditioning and refrigeration compressors which are exhaustively studied by compressor engineers and tribology experts. But there are other aspects to lubrication effects beyond the compressor which can also be key to effective operation and performance of air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This seminar presents examples of how the lubricant circulated from the compressor into the system can affect system components, oil management and overall system performance with existing and alternate refrigerants.

1  Managing Lubricants in a Large Commercial Refrigeration System

Danny Halel, Hussman Corporation
Large commercial refrigeration systems have unique concerns/opportunities unlike those with a single compressor – single evaporator system.  This seminar will discuss Lubricant Management from the outlet of the compressors through all components including the oil separator, receiver, valving, headers and suction and liquid lines as well as risers and back to the compressor.

2  Lubricant Management Heuristics and Impacts on System Chemistry, Valves and Other System Components

Christopher Reeves, Sporlan Valve Division of Parker Hannifin
Every component on the refrigerant side of a system comes into contact with the compressor’s lubricant.  This lubricant plays a key role in the performance and life of thermostatic expansion, electric expansion, and solenoid valves.    There are also interactions between the system lubricant and other system components such as piping, contaminant controls, and sealing surfaces.  This presentation explores good lubricant management practices and the challenges this part of a refrigerant system faces when transitioning to new lower GWP refrigerants.

3  Lubricants in Heat Exchangers: A Slippery Slope

Scott Wujek, Ph.D., Creative Thermal Solutions
Once oil leaves the compressor, it circulates through all components before returning to the compressor to perform its primary lubrication objective.  Oil induced wetting, foaming, and pressure drop impact heat exchanger effectiveness and pressure drop, sometimes in ways which are counterintuitive.  Oil disproportionately accumulates in regions of the heat exchanger which have the greatest effect on distribution of refrigerant flow, therefore the impact of oil is much larger than its circulation ratio would suggest.  Infrared photography and high speed videos are used to demonstrate changes in distribution and subsequent effect on heat exchanger and system performance.

4  Oil Separator Efficiency Rating Dilemma

Kok-Hiong Kee
When lubricant in the compressor circulates into the system, it may build up as a thin film on the internal surfaces of heat exchangers and acts as a thermal insulator. This robs the system of efficiency and increases energy consumption.  In addition, refrigeration systems have a fixed volume so circulating oil competes with the refrigerant resulting in reduce cooling capacity.  Oil separator technologies serve to regulate and minimize oil circulation by isolating the lubricant early in the discharge line and return it to the compressor.  This study examines the performance of various oil separation technologies using controlled experiments.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 44
Optimization of Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

HVAC Systems and Equipment
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Raymond Rite, Ph.D., Ingersoll Rand – Trane
Technical Committee: 01.03 Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow
Sponsor: TC 1.13
CoSponsor: 08.04 Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Transfer Equipment
In the quest to reduce energy consumption and the amount of refrigerant in systems, the air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger is a prime area of interest. Although reducing heat exchanger cost and maximizing performance have always been of great interest to the HVAC community, recently new thoughts on tube size, materials, manufacturing processes, as well as computational analysis methodologies have been gaining traction. This program presents all of these facets of modern heat exchanger optimization.

1  Optimization and Validation of Novel Designs for Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

Vikrant Aute, University of Maryland
This work presents a comprehensive optimization and validation of air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers based on novel shapes.  The tube hydraulic diameters investigated in this work range from 0.5 to 3 mm. The designs include round as well as non-round tubes.  Several optimal designs are prototyped using conventional and additive manufacturing techniques and their performance is measured and compared with the current state-of-the-art heat exchangers.  It is shown that for the same performance, the novel designs exhibit significant reductions in heat exchanger size and refrigerant charge.  Several manufacturing and application challenges are identified to improve the commercial viability of such novel designs.

2  Numerical Study on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Water Cooled Mini-Channel Heat Exchangers

Man-Hoe Kim, Ph.D., Kyungpook National University
A numerical investigation of the thermal-hydraulic performance of mini-channel heat exchangers with different fin configurations is presented.  Results in terms of pressure drop, base temperature, thermal resistance, and overall heat transfer coefficient were compared for different fin spacing, fin thickness and fin height.  In comparison to un-finned geometry, a reduction of 44.8% in base temperature was observed with pressure drop and thermal resistance reductions of 46.5% and 30.4%, respectively. The heat exchanger geometry with the best thermal performance was also simulated for higher heat fluxes within the same operating limits. Results were validated using available correlations and experimental data.

3  Metal Foam Heat Exchanger Design Optimization for Improved Thermal-Hydraulic Performance under Dry Operating Conditions

Kashif Nawaz, Ph.D., Johnson Controls, Inc.
Open cell metal foams have received attention for utilization in thermal applications including electronics cooling and HVAC&R.  Despite manufacturing and cost-related issues, such novel materials hold promise due to better heat transfer compared with conventional fin designs.  However, one of the major issues is their higher air-side pressure drop. Four types of aluminum foam heat exchangers with different pore sizes have been built and tested under dry conditions for this study. The data have been reduced to correlate the foam geometry to air-side heat transfer and pressure drop.  These correlations were used to optimize the foam geometry for thermal-hydraulic performance. 

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 45
Planes, Trailers and Ships: Advances in Transport Refrigeration System Technologies

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Robert Chopko, Carrier Corp
Technical Committee: 10.06 Transport Refrigeration
Advances in transport refrigeration and air-conditioning systems used in "Planes, Trailers and Ships" have evolved over many years. Today's systems must incorporate the latest available technologies, taking into consideration current and future regulatory requirements for refrigerants with low Global Warming Potential, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, food quality standards and customer expectations around total operating costs. A summary of transport refrigeration system technologies generally, along with marine air conditioning systems, are presented and includes associated technical challenges, trade-offs and potential design impacts.

4.00  Trucks,Trailers: Advances in Transport Refrigeration System Technologies

Casey Briscoe, Ph.D.
The transport refrigeration systems used in trucks and trailers are an integral component of the cold chain for perishable foods, pharmaceuticals and other temperature-sensitive products. The technology used in these systems is continually evolving to meet food quality standards, as well as current and future regulatory requirements for greenhouse gas emissions. Additional technologies have enabled greater fleet management and control, as well as reductions in customer operating costs. The present talk provides a summary of transport refrigeration requirements, along with an overview of available technologies used to address them and a discussion of the related technical challenges and design tradeoffs.

1.00  Ships: Advances in Transport Refrigeration System Technologies

Glover Kevin
Advances in transport refrigeration and air-conditioning systems used in ships have evolved over many years. Today’s systems must incorporate the latest available technologies, taking into consideration current and future regulatory requirements for refrigerants with low Global Warming Potential, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, food quality standards and customer expectations around total operating costs. A summary of transport refrigeration system technologies generally, along with marine air-conditioning systems, is presented and includes associated technical challenges, trade-offs and potential design impacts.

2.00  Airplanes, Part 1: Advances in Transport Refrigeration System Technologies

Igor Vaisman, Ph.D., Rolls-Royce North American Technologies
Air cycle is the traditional refrigeration technology in the aerospace industry. Moving toward “more-electric” and “all-electric” aircraft concepts calls on high efficiency refrigeration technologies. Vapor cycle technologies are more efficient than the air cycle technologies and, therefore, the number of vapor cycle systems installed in aircrafts will increase in “more-electric” vehicles. At the same time advances in transport refrigeration systems used in airplanes have evolved over many years. A summary of transport refrigeration system technologies for aerospace applications is presented, focusing on vapor cycle systems integrated with environmental control systems (ECS).

3.00  Airplanes, Part 2: Advances in Aerospace Galley Refrigeration System Technologies

Qiao Lu, B.E Aerospace Inc
Advances in transport refrigeration systems used in “Trailers” have evolved over many years. Today’s systems must incorporate the latest available technologies, taking into consideration  current and future regulatory requirements for refrigerants with low Global Warming Potential, energy efficiency, food quality standards and customer expectations around total operating costs. A summary of transport refrigeration system technologies generally, along with marine air conditioning systems, are presented and includes associated technical challenges, trade-offs, and potential design impacts.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 46
Regulatory Process Overview for Smart Grid, Smart Building and Demand Response Programs as Applicable to Building Owners and Utility Tariffs

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Glenn Remington, Consumers Energy
Technical Committee: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
Sponsor: NA
This seminar presents a top down overview of how smart grid and demand response federal policy and laws make their way through the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to the various regional transmission authorities then to the state level and how it impacts building owner/operators and electricity tariffs.

1  Overview of the Regulatory Process Related to Smart Grid and Demand Response

Tom Lawrence, Ph.D., University of Georgia College of Engineering
Speaker will provide an overview of the smart grid and demand response related regulatory process as it proceeds from laws promulgated at the federal level by Congress and associated regulations issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) including recent Supreme Court decision #745, to the Regional Transmission Authority (or Independent System Operator) and impacting state legislatures and regulatory commissions.

2  Overview of Public Utilities Regulation at the State Level and Contested Case Tariff Process

Robert Schallenberg
This speaker provides an overview of the state level regulatory process and how various utility tariffs are established by the rate case or "contested case" process.

3  The Role of Third Party Aggregators in Demand Response Programs

Greg Poulos, J.D.
This speaker provides an overview of the process of how 3rd party aggregators work with utilities and building owners to save energy and not only help manage energy cost for consumers but also produce savings in demand response programs.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 47
Update on the ASHRAE Innovative Research Grant Program and Future Plans for It

Research Summit
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kishor Khankari, Ph.D., AnSight LLC
Sponsor: Research Administration Committee
The ASHRAE Innovative Research Grant (IRG) was established in 2011 to provide seed funding for novel research deemed to have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art in HVAC&R engineering. The idea is to encourage out-of-the-box research to complement the research proposed and guided by technical committees. This session provides an update on the results from the first two and only grants awarded from the program and RAC's plans for this program in the future.

1  Irg-021: Smart Nanolubricants for HVAC&R Systems

Lorenzo Cremaschi, Ph.D., Auburn University
Nanolubricants are nanoparticles finely dispersed in a lubricant – are a potential cost-neutral technology that is able to increase the energy efficiency of HVAC&R systems. This talk focuses on the nanoparticles interaction with the working fluid during phase change processes. The speaker will provide a summary of the research conducted on smart nanolubricants with the support of the ASHRAE IRG. Nanolubricants provided augmented heat transfer rate in the heat exchangers with very small pressure drop penalization. The oil in circulation with the refrigerant in air conditioning system components was transformed from an unwanted contaminant to an effective energy efficiency promoter.

2  Irg-024, Biowall Research

William Hutzel, P.E., Purdue University
This talk focuses on how a new innovative technology - Biofiltration - can improve air quality in residential buildings by explaining how the clean air delivery rate is computed for a botanical filter and then will explain how a biowall was implemented in a research home.

3  Future Plans for the ASHRAE Irg Program

Kishor Khankari, Ph.D., AnSight LLC
The ASHRAE Innovative Research Grant (IRG) program was established in 2011, but the first two, and only grants issued to date, were awarded in 2012. After 2012, RAC chose to suspend the program and allow first two IRGs to run their full three course and then reevaluate the program before soliciting new grant proposals.  RAC has now completed their review of the IRG program and they will annouce through this talk what are the future plans for this program.

1:30 PM-3:00 PM
Seminar 48
The Philosophy and Ethics of the Different Building Industry Professionals

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Richard Rooley, FREng, Project Management Partnership
Technical Committee: 01.07 Business, Management & General Legal Education
Great buildings are created by constructive confrontation. Each commercial company in the process enters into a contract for its part of the work. Theoretically there is consistency among the many contracts. In the real world a lack of consistency combined with misunderstandings can create conflict. The team of building industry professionals people are drawn together for the project with different education, training, method of working, communication skills and membership of professional bodies who each have codes of ethics. In the education of each, a different philosophy is taught or implied. The audience has their own individual background.

1  The Philosophy and Ethics of the Architect

Leonard Sciarra, AIA, Gentler
The architect within a construction project works within a philosophy and ethics of their own company,  the AIA and the specific contract  for the project. The architect also has a philosophy and ethic based on the culture of the architectural profession.

2  The Philosophy and Ethics of the Design Engineer

Ginger Scoggins, P.E., Engineering Designs
The Design Engineer within a construction project works within a philosophy and ethics of their own company,  the NSPE where appropriate and the specific contract  for the project. The Designer also has a philosophy and ethic based on the culture of the contracting profession.

3  The Philosophy and Ethics of the Contractor

Michael Cooper, P.E., MCC
The contractor within a construction project works within a philosophy and ethics of their own company,  the NSPE where appropriate and the specific contract  for the project. The contractor also has a philosophy and ethic based on the culture of the contracting profession.

4  The Philosophy and Ethics of the Manufacturer

Tom Watson, P.E., Daikon McQuay
The manufacturer within a construction project works within a philosophy and ethics of their own company,  the NSPE where appropriate and the specific contract  for the project. The manufacturer also has a philosophy and ethic based on the culture of the manufacturing profession.

3:15 PM-4:45 PM
Seminar 49
Bringing a New Look and Energy to a Federal Building in Houston

HVAC Systems and Equipment
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Alonzo Blalock, P.E., Jacobs Engineering
Technical Committee: 09.01 Large Building Air-Conditioning Systems
This program explains the multi-year project to provide new ‘skin’ to the existing 22 story Federal Office building in Downtown Houston – and the process of renovation of complete interior HVAC and lighting systems; working thru two floors per cycle, while all other aspects of the building remained in use for occupants. The project includes: use of VAV diffusers for room air distribution; use of Fan Wall in the replacement AHUs; complete new DDC control that includes overlay control to the new lighting system; large PV system installed on remote parking structure; and the enhanced performance of new envelope.

1  Designing the New Look

Thomas Shelton
The Leland Renovation Project added significant architectural value to the built environment in downtown Houston. Previously the building was a Class C office building with a leaky, poorly insulated, dated exterior, a narrow crowded lobby and very inefficient mechanical systems. The architectural challenge included completely reskinning the building with a new, insulated and laminated (blast-resistant) glass curtainwall system. The challenge was complicated by the requirement to complete the renovation project without moving building occupants out of the building. The project requirements included achieving a 30% reduction from ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline. This was accomplished using a high performance curtainwall system.

2  Planning Renovation of an Occupied Building

James Penland
In March of 2010 Gilbane was given the assignment to lead a Design Build effort to do a complete renovation to the twenty two story Leland Federal Office Building in Houston, Texas by the General Services Administration. The assignment included the replacement of the existing skin, a complete replacement of the air distribution system, a new lighting system, new fire suppression system, upgrades to the restrooms to comply with ADA, relocation of the cafeteria, reworking the main Lobby and a complete replacement of the site and all access points into the building.

3  Upgrades to the HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing Systems

Gary Poole, P.E.
Renovations to the Mickey Leland Federal Building (MLFB) included upgrades to the HVAC, Electrical, Plumbing and Automation systems that improved occupant comfort and conserved the energy and water associated with these systems.  Overall, the scope included upgrades to the chiller plant, and replacement of the air distribution and lighting systems that served the occupied spaces. The air handling unit fans were based on the use of a fan array with variable frequency drives. Complementing the upgrades to the HVAC systems, the lighting systems were replaced with LED style light fixtures which include control systems based on both occupancy and daylighting.

  Commissioning Testing of the VAV Diffusers and PV

Alonzo Blalock, P.E., Jacobs Engineering
The project included installation of VAV Diffusers for the floor spaces. The project was to
demo all ceiling and ductwork and the AHU on a 2 floor area, starting at the top floors. Then
installation of new duct and the VAV diffuser system. Multiple testing runs were made of the
initial installation to arrive at a suitable control arrangement and testing pattern.
Commissioning for the varied operations required development of a different testing regimen
than had been typical for VAV systems. Tracking of the PV output with the BAS system is available to the Regional office in Ft Worth.

4  We Taught the Old Dog a New Trick

Kendall Waldie, P.E.
When the project was completed, the tenants were delighted to find the occupant comfort was significantly improved. The temperature and humidity levels are stabilized and the building holds a consistent temperature across zones.  The lighting levels are much more appealing and the space is bright and welcoming even though the heat transmission is greatly reduced.  With the integration of the HVAC, lighting, occupancy and potentially building access controls the energy consumption in the facility has dropped over 40% since the pre-construction survey baseline.

3:30 PM-5:00 PM
Seminar TC
Is Poor Bedroom Ventilation Affecting Your Next-Day Performance?

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Pawel Wargocki, PhD, Technical University of Denmark
Technical Committee: 02.01 Physiology and Human Environment
Sponsor: SSPC-55
OPEN SESSION: no badge required; no PDHs awarded; presented during the TC's meeting. This seminar discusses how poor air quality negatively affects sleep and reduces next-day performance. Dr. Dennis Loveday, Loughborough University presents "What's Been Happening to Thermal Conditions in UK Bedrooms over the Last Forty Years?" Chandra Sekhar, National University of Singapore, presents "Overnight Air Quality in Bedrooms in Hot and Humid Climates." Dr. Lan Li, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, presents "Sleeping Thermal Environment, Thermal Comfort and Sleep Quality." Pawel Wargocki, the Technical University of Denmark, presents "The Effects of Bedroom Air Quality on Sleep and Next-Day Performance."

5:00 PM-6:00 PM
Seminar TC
Indoor Air Quality in Underground Stations and Tunnels: Development of a New ASHRAE Standard

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Igor Maevski, Ph.D., P.E., Jacobs Engineering
Technical Committee: 05.09 Enclosed Vehicular Facilities
Sponsor: SPC 217
CoSponsor: 04.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
OPEN SESSION: no badge required; no PDHs awarded; presented during the TC's meeting. This seminar introduces and discusses the development of a new ASHRAE Standard, "Non-Emergency Ventilation in Enclosed Road, Rail and Mass Transit Facilities." Robert Smith of Innerquest, LLC presents "Ventilation System and Equipment Selection Issues in Underground Transit Stations and Tunnels." Yuan Li of Jacobs Engineering presents "Non-Emergency Ventilation Standard for Road Tunnels." David G. Newman of Hatch Mott MacDonald presents "Non-Emergency Ventilation Standard for Rail Tunnels." Mark Colino of Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. presents "Non-Emergency Ventilation Standard for Mass Transit Stations and Tunnels."

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Technical Paper Session 9
Fan and Airflow Diagnostics and Modeling

Fundamentals and Applications
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kimberly Pierson, Stanford White
Mathematical models, experimental data and field observations are used in various ways in these papers to characterize performance of fan-powered terminal units, determine system effects on plenum/plug fans, detect low evaporator airflow using fan power for rooftop units and model airflow through a perforated duct.

1.00  Modeling Airflow through a Perforated Duct (ST-16-023)

Jesse Maddren, California Polytechnic State University
John Farrell, MHC Engineers, Inc.
Alan Fields, Sungevity
Cesar Jarquin, Glenair, Inc.
This paper details experimental measurements and mathematical modeling of air flow through a perforated duct with an open area of 22% and capped at the end. Measurements were conducted on ducts with uniform diameters of 12 in., 10 in., and 8 in. (0.20 m, 0.25 m and 0.30 m). All ducts were 20 ft (6.10 m) long and inlet flow rates ranged from approximately 350 to 700 cfm (165 to 330 L/s). Flow rates were measured along the length of the duct using the pitot traverse method. The static pressure was also measured. The flow through the duct was modeled assuming one-dimensional flow and a differential equation was derived using the mass, momentum and energy equations. The resulting differential equation was solved numerically and the results were compared to the experimental measurements. Good agreement was achieved when comparing the experimental and model flow rates for all test runs with a maximum difference of 14.0% and an average difference of 2.0%. Results for the static pressure showed the same trends between the experiments and the model. The pressure was largest at the capped end of the duct where the experimental measurements exceeded the model results by a maximum of 21.8%.

2.00  Low Evaporator Airflow Detection Using Fan Power for Rooftop Units (ST-16-024)

Yunhua Li, Ph.D., Bes-Tech Inc.
Mingsheng Liu, Ph.D., P.E., Bes-Tech, Inc.
Josephine Lau, Ph.D., Univ of Nebraska-Lincoln
Low evaporator airflow is one of the common faults for rooftop units, which can be caused by dirty filter, evaporator fouling, or loose belt. Low airflow could result in frozen evaporator coil, reduced cooling capacity and indoor comfort issues. Accordingly, more fan power is consumed as longer operating time is required. With the widespread use of variable frequency drives (VFDs) on rooftop units, low evaporator airflow can be potentially detected by monitoring the fan power variation. In the paper, the principle of fan-power based detection is introduced first. Then, the detection algorithm is proposed including development of baseline and comparison of operational data with baseline. At last, the field test was conducted to verify the proposed method. The test results indicated that fan power based method can effectively detect low evaporator airflow for rooftop units.

3.00  Characterizing the Performance of Fixed Airflow Series Fan-Powered Terminal Units Using a Mass and Energy Balance Approach (ST-16-025)

Dennis O'Neal, Ph.D., P.E., Baylor University

Carl Reid, Bee
Peng Yin, Ph.D., University of Louisiana at Lafayette
A traditional mass and energy balance component approach was used to characterize the performance of fixed airflow series fan powered terminal units for applications in building simulation programs. The approach included developing relevant energy and mass balance equations for the components in a fan powered terminal unit – heating coil, fan/motor combination, and mixer. Fan motors that included permanent split capacitor motors controlled by silicon controlled rectifiers or electronically commutated motors were included in the model development. The paper demonstrates how to incorporate the fan/motor combination performance models for both permanent split capacitor and electronically commutated motors into the mass and energy balance approach. The fan models were developed from performance data that were provided by multiple fan powered terminal unit manufacturers. The fan/motor performance data included a fan airflow range from 250 to 3500 ft3/min (0.118 to 1.65 m3/s) and a motor size range from one-third to one hp (248.6 to 745.7 W).

4.00  Using a Mass and Energy Balance Approach to Model the Performance of Parallel Fan-Powered Terminal Units with Fixed Airflow Fans (ST-16-026)

Peng Yin, Ph.D., University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Dennis O'Neal, Ph.D., P.E., Baylor University

Carl Reid, Bee
A mass and energy balance approach was used to characterize the performance of parallel fan powered terminal units for applications in building simulation programs. The approach included developing relevant mass and energy balance equations for each component in a parallel fan powered terminal unit – heating coil, fan/motor combination, and mixer. Only fixed airflow applications were included. Two locations of the heating coil were considered. One location, designated as the traditional configuration, was at the discharge of the unit. The second location, designated as the alternative configuration, was at the secondary air inlet. Fixed airflow parallel FPTUs use fan motors that include either permanent split capacitor motors controlled by silicon controlled rectifiers or electronically commutated motors. The paper demonstrated how to incorporate fan/motor combination performance models for both permanent split capacitor and electronically commutated motors into the mass and energy balance approach. These fan models were developed from performance data provided by multiple fan powered terminal unit manufacturers The fan/motor performance data included FPTU a fan airflow range from 250 to 3500 ft3/min (0.118 to 1.65 m3/s) and a motor size range from one-third to one hp (249 to 746 W). Leakage was included in the models. Sample runs were used to illustrate the effect of leakage in both cooling and heating operations.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Conference Paper Session 17
Field Data and Ensuing Recommendations

Research Summit
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D., P.E., Texas A&M University
This session evaluates measured energy and water usage in residential buildings and the variations due to occupancy and users and the changes over six years. This session also looks at the performance of office and K-12 facilities that were designed to meet the ASHRAE 30% AEDG, and where they stand compared to code-minimum facilities. Lastly, this session discusses the development of benchmarking data for Army buildings based on metered data obtained from new construction facilities.

1.00  An Evaluation of the Actual Energy Performance of Small Office and K-12 School Buildings Designed in Accordance with the 30% ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guidelines (ST-16-C050)

Dennis Jones, P.E., Group14 Engineering Inc.
The purpose of Research Project RP1627 is to determine the effectiveness of 30% Advanced Energy Design Guidelines for K-12 schools and small office buildings, determine the factors common to well and poorly performing buildings, and to provide recommendations for how future AEDGs could be made more effective. Group14 collected utility data and developed weather-normalized Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs; site energy use per unit area per year) for a sample of small office and K-12 school buildings designed in accordance with the first (30%) ASHRAE AEDGs. The results were compared to the modeled ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 Baseline and 30% Savings EUIs from the Technical Support Documents used to develop the two AEDGs. The sample included 30 schools and 23 office buildings; most designed to AEDG requirements. A total of 14 of the 53 building sample were designed to meet the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code; these code buildings provide a means for comparison to the AEDG buildings. Most buildings meeting 30%AEDG requirements achieved energy savings exceeding 50% of the ASHRAE 90.1 Baselines. However, non-AEDG schools, constructed to code, performed nearly as well. Most school districts are committed to energy-efficient buildings. The non-AEDG small office average EUI was near the Baseline EUI, but AEDG small offices EUIs were about 50% of Baseline EUIs, indicating significantly better performance for AEDG small office buildings. On-site energy and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) audits were performed on 5 schools and 5 small office buildings with different designs and in different climate zones to verify AEDG required strategies were included in the designs and that strategies are operational and effective. In general, most, but not all, AEDG strategies were in place and operational. The research project is still underway and is scheduled for completion in January 2016. The next steps are: to determine the factors common to relatively well-performing buildings, as well as the factors common to relatively poorly-performing buildings, based on building surveys.  The next step is to provide recommendations for how future AEDGs for small office and K-12 school buildings could be made more effective in achieving better energy performance than required by ASHRAE Standard 90.1 while providing acceptable indoor environmental quality. This project supports goals of ASHRAE’s Research Strategic Plan 2010 – 2015 and will help ASHRAE maintain its leadership position in the effort to help engineers, designers, and contractors build progressively more energy-efficient buildings that deliver acceptable indoor environmental quality at a reasonable cost.

2.00  Developing Benchmarks for US Army Buildings Using Data from the Metering Data Management System (ST-16-C051)

Rahul A. Athalye, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Daniel Carpio, US Army Corps of Engineers
Kim Fowler
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) required energy use in federal buildings to be metered. Since then, the US Army has installed electricity and natural gas meters on new and many existing facilities. To manage vast amounts of metered data from installations across the country, a centralized Metering Data Management System (MDMS) was put into place. MDMS continuously collects metered data, and makes it available at a central location for easy access. However, it quickly became clear that for the building energy data to be useful, it had to be put into context. CBECS and Energy Star’s portfolio manager provide context for commercial buildings in the private sector. A similar reference was needed for Army buildings that are often quite different in design and function to commercial buildings. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed baseline models for five common Army building types. The focus of this initial study was on newly constructed buildings (post 2008) that were designed using standardized design documents created in response to EPACT 2005. Using metered data from these newly constructed buildings, EnergyPlus whole building energy models of the standard designs were calibrated. These models were then reverted to a Standard 90.1-2007 baseline using rules established by Appendix G of Standard 90.1-2007. The Standard 90.1-2007 baseline is important because it allows comparison of the performance of buildings to the EPACT 2005 requirement of building performance being 30% better than Standard 90.1-2007. This paper describes the methodology behind the creation of the baseline models and also describes how these models will be used to output results for MDMS. The methodology starts with processing of raw data from MDMS, choosing data for calibration, performing model calibration and reverting calibrated models to the Standard 90.1-2007 baseline. By using calibrated models to generate the baseline, the actual operating of buildings for a given location is captured in the models. The paper will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, and will summarize ways in which baseline models will be used and how they will benefit MDMS and its users.

3.00  Correlations between Apartment Occupancy Levels and Use of Household Electricity and Domestic Hot Water (ST-16-C053)

Hans Bagge, Ph.D., Lund University
Dennis Johansson, Ph.D., Lund University - Building Services
Both the current and future buildings will have very well-insulated building envelopes heated mostly by internal heat gains from occupants and household electricity. The occupant related energy uses, household electricity and domestic hot water heating, will have a large impact on the energy performance. In low-energy buildings the heating of domestic hot water is in the same order of magnitude as the energy for space heating. Knowledge of occupancy levels is critical for prediction and verification as well as optimization of various demand controlled systems. This article presents how household electricity and domestic hot water use varies due to occupancy level. Occupancy level, household electricity and domestic hot water were measured in 79 apartments during 12 days per apartment. Occupancy level was measured by electronic diaries in which those living in and visiting the apartment marked their attendance by pressing buttons when entering and leaving the apartment. Household electricity and domestic hot water were measured hourly while the diaries recorded data every second. The result shows that there are relatively weak correlations between occupancy level and the studied energy uses demonstrated by a large variation in both household electricity and hot water use at the same occupancy level. Household electricity has a stronger correlation to the occupancy level during the day compared to the occupancy level during the night, where the level during the night is assumed to describe how many people are living in the apartment. The hot water has a stronger correlation to the occupancy level during the night compared to the occupancy level during the day. One possible explanation is that larger quantities of domestic hot water could be due to showering in the morning, which would depend on how many people spent the night in the apartment while household electricity could depend more on how much of the day there are people in the apartment. The result shows that the average occupancy level during the day or the number of people living in an apartment describes only a small part of the use of household electricity and domestic hot water. Probably there is considerable individual differences in how people use electricity and hot water, which leads to a need to describe the variation by statistical distributions.

4.00  Variations in Use of Household Electricity between Years: Measurements in 539 Apartments during Six Years (ST-16-C052)

Dennis Johansson, Ph.D., Lund University - Building Services
Hans Bagge, Ph.D., Lund University
The importance of follow ups of buildings energy use during operation to optimize the performance and identify deviations and errors has attracted attention during recent years. As buildings are becoming more energy efficient with a better exterior envelope, household electricity is becoming an increasingly important part of the total heating energy and, in turn, the optimization of the thermal performance of the exterior envelope. Variations between different years can be thought to have a significant impact. Unfortunately, it seems that enough knowledge, studies and data that describe how the household electricity varies between different years are missing. A low household electricity use during one year might imply a certain hvac and building design while a high household electricity use might imply another optimal design, and this may vary over time. This might also in part explain reported gaps between calculated and measured energy use. To supply the industry with reference data on typical variations during time and between different users, there is a need for several consecutive years of measurements of household electricity in the same apartments in a large enough sample of apartments to obtain good statistics. Household electricity has been measured in 539 apartments in 25 multi-family buildings in Sweden during six years. This paper presents statistics and characteristics of the variation between years and between different apartments and buildings. The results show large differences between years, regarding both apartments and buildings, and a conclusion is that this should be considered booth during design and operation.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 50

Professional Skills Beyond Engineering
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Bill Simpson, Harrison Energy Partners
Technical Committee: 01.07 Business, Management & General Legal Education
Sponsor: Student Activities Committee
What is all the hype about STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics)? Why should ASHRAE members care about it? How do they talk to kids about it? What is the difference in dealing with K-12 or Post-high? This session not only answers these questions but also shares what the society committee has developed for member use.

1  Why Should an Engineer Care about Talking to Kids?

Kristin Schaefer, P.E., Schaefer Engineering
As engineers, we are stereotyped as not good at communication. So, what is the motivation to go beyond our comfort zone and talk to kids? The simple truth that today's kids are our future employees, coworkers, and bosses drives the desire for us to help them understand engineering, and the need to study mathematics and sciences. Student audiences require different approaches to STEM topics for different ages, and we'll learn why certain ideas are appropriate for which ages. We also explore strategies for getting involved with students at various stages in our careers, from YEA to HVAC&R industry veteran.

2  What Does ASHRAE Have to Help You with Students?

Joe Chin, P.E., Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.

ASHRAE Society along with the Student Activities Committee has developed many tools to assist with presenting STEM topics to Students.  These tools include recommended STEM classroom activities, posters and handouts, student competitions, videos and "STEM Classroom Kits".  A summary of these items is presented along with strategies to apply these tools to different age groups as well as tips to be sure you're prepared for a classroom visit.

3  How to Do a K-12 STEM Classroom Visit

Chuck Curlin, P.E., Shultz Engineering Group
It can be very intimidating to enter a classroom and present a STEM topic and perform an interactive STEM activity.  In this session we perform a simulated classroom visit where we will walk through a STEM activity.  This is an interactive session where the audience will actually perform the STEM activity being presented.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 51
Passive Buildings and VRF: How Low Can You Go?

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Christopher R. Laughman, Ph.D., Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories
Technical Committee: 08.07 Variable Refrigerant Flow
Passive buildings have attracted a great deal of interest because of their promise of reducing energy consumption and operating cost while maintaining occupant comfort. VRF is well suited to cooling and heating in these applications because of its high efficiency at the part-load conditions at which these buildings usually operate. This seminar includes presentations from manufacturers, mechanical engineers and architects on strategies and methods for designing and installing these systems in these buildings with their accompanying energy efficiency and ventilation requirements.

1  HVAC Design Considerations for Passive Buildings

Michael Ingui, AIA, Baxt/Ingui Architects, P.C.
Passive buildings must be designed with a number of specialized considerations on HVAC systems, including acoustic constraints, the use of ERVs, and the use of smaller amounts of ductwork.  This talk describes how these considerations are taken into account in practical building designs.

2  VRF Systems for Passive Buildings

Paul Doppel, Mitsubishi Electric
VRF systems are ideally suited to application in passive buildings and homes, due to their high part-load energy efficiency, low fan noise, and flexibility in installation.  This presentation provides new information about the application of these systems to ultra-low-energy buildings, as well as measured data on performance of these systems in the field.

3  System Specification for Passive Buildings

Cramer Silkworth, P.E.
This presentation reviews the load calculation process for ultra-low energy buildings, the selection of equipment and design of systems, and (hopefully!) present monitored energy & comfort data.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 52
Residential Building Smart Devices and Data: Improving Energy Use Insights and Performance Evaluation

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kristen Cetin, Ph.D., P.E., Iowa State University
Technical Committee: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
The number of smart, connected technologies available and implemented in buildings has increased significantly in recent years, as have the number of types of devices and their capabilities to collect data on building performance, energy use and demand. This seminar presents opportunities to utilize these devices and data collected to more intelligently assess current building performance and more intelligently operate building systems. This seminar covers various advances in the collection and use of residential building energy and performance data for more smart assessment and operation of buildings.

1  Energy Use Insights from Inverse Thermodyanmic-Based Modeling of Residential Buildings

Kristen Cetin, Ph.D., P.E., Iowa State University
This presentation investigates the use of utility billing data for residential buildings, combined with highly granular weather data to disaggregate energy data into end uses, determine the type of HVAC system in use, and predict future months’ disaggregated energy use. This is accomplished through the use of an inverse thermodynamic-based model that uses binned temperature values.  This methodology was verified using a dataset of several hundred homes. The resulting information can provide insights to residential building customers to motivate energy savings behaviors.

2  Demand Prediction Using Connected Thermostat Residential Building Energy Models

Ratnesh Tiwari, Ph.D., University of Maryland
A simple gray box model has been developed for residential buildings to predict the future  HVAC energy use given the weather forecast.  The model is based on thermostat data (temperature, setpoint, and HVAC on/off information) and the outside weather conditions (outdoor temperature, solar irradiation and wind speed). The accuracy of the future HVAC energy use for over 1000 houses across the United States predicted by the models was compared with the actual data. Predicted energy use from the model is within +/- 10% of the actual HVAC used. The temperature prediction error was within +/- 0.3C.

3  Cornell Temperature Datalogger Project

Weili Xu, Carnegie Mellon University
The Cornell Temperature Datalogger Project placed temperature dataloggers into 200 people’s homes for two weeks at a low-cost of $5. With 3-minute time scale, we observe temperature setbacks and the rate of thermal decay to reach those setbacks. Using this data, we are able to create a histogram of thermal decay and thermal setpoints for benchmarking the community. Compared to utility-meter-based approaches, temperature analysis more directly isolates shell performance. This helps identify community energy “hot spots” (80/20 rule) where shell retrofits would make the most impact. Correlations with building age, size, and heating fuel type will also be presented.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 53
Smart Equipment: the Intelligent Buildings Revolution Is Happening in the Edge

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Marcelo Acosta, P.E., Armstrong Fluid Technology
Technical Committee: 01.04 Control Theory and Application
CoSponsor: 06.01 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems
Will highly efficient buildings intelligence reside in the Cloud or in the Edge? This session presents three examples of Smart Equipment already in the market, showing how in depth manufacturer knowledge of the equipment embedded in distributed intelligence surpasses generic and distant intelligence in energy savings, diagnostics, auto-commissioning, redundancy and reliability. The session also shows how full systems optimization and really useful user interfaces can be achieved with the addition of lightweight integration.

1  Smart Pumps Keep Your HVAC System Running High

David Lee, P.Eng., Armstrong Fluid Technology
Advances in drives and controls have made HVAC pumping smarter than ever.  Pumps with on-board intelligence are capable of controlling themselves without remotely-mounted sensors, and delivering energy savings that can easily exceed today’s standards.  This session also explores how commissioning can be simplified while the pump monitoring data can be used by facility managers to quickly respond to pump and system issues that could lead to higher operating costs, comfort issues, shorter equipment life or unexpected failures.

2  Smart Valves: the Cool New Kids Are Doing Flow Balancing and Control

Jeffrey Flannery, Danfoss LLC
We can’t blame those who thought all was said and done in flow balancing and control, but this session will definitely prove them wrong. Smart Valves come with a repertoire of control modes, data points and flexibility that were unthinkable just a few years ago. This session explores the new possibilities and shows the energy savings, extended operation and stability now achievable.

3  Smart Compressors: Are They Magic? No ... But They Are Amazing!

Jose Alvares
Compressors floating on magnetic bearings can do much more than levitation tricks. This session shows how new levels of energy efficiency, operational flexibility, and robustness are now possible with high speed and precise embedded controls.

4  Integrating Smart Equipment Made Easy

Marcelo Acosta, P.E., Armstrong Fluid Technology
While smart equipment can bury the integrator in a deluge of data, smart integrators know how to KISS. This presentation shows how to use the smart equipment data to effortlessly optimize entire systems. It also provides guidelines to consolidate the data into insightful info for the operators and engineers.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 54
Standard 100-2015 Overview and the Potential of Its High-Performance Existing Building Metrics

Fundamentals and Applications
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Wayne H. Stoppelmoor Jr., Schneider Electric
Technical Committee: 07.06 Building Energy Performance
Sponsor: SSPC 100
CoSponsor: 02.08 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability
Existing building renovations comprise 86% of annual construction cost in the United States. Improving the energy performance of existing buildings represents one of our greatest opportunities for a more sustainable future. This seminar provides information on new provisions in Standard 100-2015. The revised standard provides comprehensive and detailed descriptions of the processes and procedures for the retrofit of existing residential and commercial buildings to achieve greater energy efficiency. Development and application of newly developed energy targets for compliance will be described, along with detailed energy audit procedures included in the standard.

1  Key Objectives and Provisions of a Major Revision to ASHRAE's Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Standard

Gordon V. R. Holness, P.E., Consulting Engineer
Standard 100-2015 includes significant revisions to the 2006 version with the objective of becoming impactful and relevant as a code intended standard. The 2015 version provides greater guidance and a more comprehensive approach to the retrofit of existing buildings for increased energy efficiency.  It sets specific Energy Targets based on performance compared to the 25th or 40th percentile of CBECS or RECS data by building type, climate zone, and building occupancy.  It also includes an energy audit path for buildings without energy targets.  This presentation summarizes the objectives and options for compliance with the updated requirements.

2  Development and Application of Target Tables in Standard 100

Terry Sharp, P.E., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
EUI energy targets in Standard 100-2015 were derived from the 2003 CBECS and 2005 RECS databases, supplemented by energy modeling as necessary, for 53 building types in 16 U.S. climate zones.  An analysis of CBECS data to investigate the impact of operating schedule by building type enabled development of “shift multipliers” that could be used to adjust building energy use intensities in commercial buildings.  This presentation provides details on the development of the standard's energy target tables and shift multipliers, along with options for updating the tables based on the new CBECS database scheduled for publication in 2016.

3  The Energy Audit Path in Standard 100

Jim Kelsey, P.E., kW Engineering
Standard 100-2015 includes energy audit requirements for buildings without targets and energy audit requirements for buildings that don’t meet their energy use intensity targets.  The Standard also includes requirements for an Energy Management Plan, an Operation & Maintenance Plan, and addresses requirements for ongoing commissioning.  This presentation will provide details on compliance with the Standard via the energy audit paths as well as helpful information for users in several informative annexes of the standard.

8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Seminar 55
System Efficiency Impacts of Low-GWP Refrigerants: Is This Our Fall from Grace?

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Christopher Seeton, Ph.D., Shrieve
Technical Committee: 03.01 Refrigerants and Secondary Coolants
This session investigates the energy efficiency of several alternative Low Global Warming Potential refrigerant blends. The presentations address the thermodynamics of the blends, including the associated temperature glide in the heat exchangers. They also focus on the types of application whether the blend is intended for drop-in or near drop-in service or whether intensive changes are required to capture the best performance. Comparisons from the recent AHRI alternative refrigerants program are also presented to show the most recent developments and state of the art.

1  The Thermodynamic Efficiency of Refrigerants: a History of a Downhill Slide?

Kenneth Schultz, Ph.D., Ingersoll Rand
The thermodynamic properties of refrigerants modeled in a simple single-stage vapor compression cycle can provide insight into the potential benefits or challenges associated with new generations of refrigerants.  This presentation outlines a simple thermodynamic cycle model and discuss various aspects important to system performance, including the impact of temperature glide when using zeotropic blends.  The thermodynamic performance of a range of next generation low GWP refrigerants will be reviewed, highlighting the potential benefits and challenges in front of us as we transition yet again.  Maybe not everything is going downhill?

2  A Total System Analysis of Air and Water Cooled Lower GWP Refrigerants

Richard Lord, United Technologies Carrier Corp
The total environmental impact of leading lower GWP replacement refrigerants for R410A and R134a based chillers must be considered.   There are several alternate refrigerants with lower GWP’s than R410A and R134a, but the direct emissions are only one contributor to the total global warming impact.   The impact on efficiency must also be considered.   Chillers are very high efficiency and low leak products so the impact from direct emissions is low compared to indirect.   Results on annualized analysis of the efficiency including the impact of refrigerant cycle performance changes and heat transfer changes across all 19 climate zones will be presented.

3  Low GWP (A2L) Refrigerant Evaluation on a 10-Ton Rooftop Air-Conditioner

Matthew Clark, Lubrizol Advanced Materials Inc.
With environmental concerns on high global warning potential (GWP) refrigerants used in HVACR industry, Carrier Commercial Engineering participated in the AHRI Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP). This study is to understand the Low GWP refrigerant options available to replace R-410A. A 10 ton Rooftop air conditioning unit was tested evaluating four Low GWP refrigerant candidates. The test consisted of EER and high ambient conditions. The refrigerants evaluated were R-32, R-454B, R-446A and R-447A as well as baseline refrigerant R-410A. The current and future regulations for Low GWP refrigerants, energy efficiency, and operation envelop were considered in the investigation.

4  Evaluation of a Lower GWP Refrigerant Option for R404A in Commercial Refrigeration Applications

Brian Fricke, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
A lower global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant blend, R448A, composed of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrofluoro-olefin (HFO) refrigerants, has been proposed as an alternative to R404A.  An evaluation of these two refrigerants in a laboratory-scale commercial refrigeration system is presented in this session.  The system COP when operating with R448A was found to be up to 7% higher than that of R404A, while compressor power decreased by up to 6% when operating with R448A versus R404A.  Given that R448A exhibits lower GWP than R404A, with similar operating characteristics and no energy penalty, R448A is a suitable lower GWP replacement for R404A.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Forum 4
To Centralize or Decentralize a Thermal Energy System: The Great Debate Continues

HVAC Systems and Equipment
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Alan Neely, Pittsburgh Corning Corporation
Technical Committee: 06.02 District Energy
This forum panel comprised of a manufacturer, a design consultant and a district energy provider, provides a short presentation of their opinion on the pros/cons of the centralized vs a decentralized thermal system. A question and answer period will then follow. Questions presented by the moderator will be directed to get into the detail of the benefits of each system. The panelists are John Andrepont representing a Consulting Engineer, Michael Marr P.E. representing a District Energy Developer, and Brian Huibregtse representing an Equipment Manufacturer.

  To Centralize or Decentralize a Thermal Energy System: The Great Debate Continues

Robert Alan Neely, Pittsburgh Corning
These are the session slides.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Workshop 9
The Busted BIM Building Blues

Fundamentals and Applications
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: E. Mitchell Swann, P.E., MDCSystems
Technical Committee: 07.02 HVAC&R Contractors and Design Build Firms
Sponsor: TC 1.07 Business, Management and General Legal Education
CoSponsor: 07.01 Integrated Building Design
BIM has become a growing industry practice over the past 10 years. Inconsistencies in approach, application and intended use have made the realization of the theoretical benefits of BIM uneven. The lure of BIM is fewer field conflicts, fewer RFIs, fewer change orders and a better project. What can you do with BIM when you have it? How should an engineer "do“ BIM? A Contractor? An owner? Wouldn’t you like to know? Well then, you had better come to this program to find out! (But remember, the blues can be happy too!)

1  You’ve Got Friends: the Successful Execution of BIM for MEP Work

Guy Gast, SMACNA
This presentation highlights a success story for BIM where a strong MEP Contractor took the lead on the model development effort and used the tool to advance a quality product and make for a happy customer.  Key in this effort was the contractor integrating construction sequences to MEP layouts and design, thus truly integrating the building model into the construction process. Come and learn some tricks.

2  When You Believe in Things You Don’t Understand, You Suffer

Barry Brunet
BIM holds much promise as a powerful tool to improve and enhance the design and construction process.  But experience tells us that any tool can be a weapon if you hold it right.  This portion of the program looks at some of the features and facets of BIM, how they differ from what we ‘used to do’ and how you can get a hedge against some of those less than ideal outcomes that we all worry about but don’t want to talk about.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 18
3D Printer Emissions

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: James F. Sweeney, Texas A&M University
3D printers are being increasingly utilized in industrial, commercial, institutional and residential applications. These printers provide many beneficial applications and their use will grow exponentially in the near future. However, these printers emit nanoscale particulate for which current filtration methods may not be adequate to protect occupants from harmful effects of such particulates. This session assesses potential hazards to occupants of spaces where 3D printers are used, and also examines whether compliance standards are needed in order to protect occupants.

1  Fine Particulate and Chemical Emissions from Desktop 3D Printers (ST-16-C054)

Aika Davis, Ph.D., UL
Marilyn Black, Ph.D., Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Qian Zhang, Georgia Institute of Technology
Jenny Wong, Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology
Rodney Weber, Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology
3D printers are used in various applications, by designers and students for their inventions, as well as industrial, medical, and residential purposes. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is the most common type of desktop 3D printers, where a coil of thermoplastic filament is heated as it extrudes from a nozzle to a moving platform, building the object layer by layer. 3D printers may emit toxic gases and particulates that deteriorate indoor air quality, especially since they are typically operated indoors for hours at a time. Currently, little is known about desktop 3D printer emissions. We have developed a methodology for characterizing and quantifying emissions from an operating 3D printer. The protocol measures for fine particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations over time to determine emission factors and human exposure potentials.  Chemical composition and toxicity of raw filaments as well as emitted particulates were also examined. Early findings indicate that 3D printers can be a significant source of indoor air pollution. A review of particulate and VOC emissions from 3D printers using various filaments will be presented. Key factors that influence the emissions and healthier alternatives for consumers will be identified. Implications of this study towards establishing compliance standards for 3D printers and its filaments will be presented.

2  Field Investigations of Nanoscale Particle Dispersion and Deposition Emitted from 3D Printers in Ventilated Spaces (ST-16-C055)

Zheng O`Neill, Ph.D., P.E., University of Alabama
Charles O'Neill, Ph.D.
Humans typically spend 90% of their time indoors. Indoor air pollution in working places is widely recognized as one of the most serious potential environment risks to human health. Three-dimensional (3D) printers are a growing field with the global 3D printing market projected to grow from $2.5B in 2013 to $16.2B by 2018. Previous studies measured that certain 3D-printers emits large numbers of nanoscale particles. Current MHVAC (Mechanical Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning) system designs have filtration devices with low to zero effective efficiency against nanoscale particles. Furthermore, there is no consideration of a local ventilation system for the spaces occupied by 3D printers. This situation conceptually leads to a high concentration of nanoscale particles and particle cross-pollution amongst different ventilated spaces. High concentrations of nanoscale particles can cause severe health problem for those occupants with long-term exposure to indoor nanoscale particles because of particle deposition deep into the lungs and potentially crossing the barrier into the blood circulation. It is well established that nanoscale particles can trigger inflammation and cause serious cardiovascular and respiratory problems when inhaled.  Although there have been limited studies on indoor nanoscale particles emitted from 3D printers, no studies have been reported on their dispersion and deposition in ventilated spaces. This paper presents the preliminary measurement of indoor nanoscale particle concentration levels and surface temperatures from different types of 3D-printers in a ventilated space.  The experimental set-up and measurement protocol will be described, followed by some preliminary data analysis. It is expected such data will be used for providing boundary conditions in the latter CFD simulation.  The ultimate objective of this research is to understand the impact of MHVAC strategies and designs on indoor air quality in ventilated spaces with 3D printers.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Conference Paper Session 19
What's New in Water Heating

HVAC Systems and Equipment
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Henry A. Becker, H-O-H Water Technology, Inc.
The three papers in this session focus on various aspects of energy efficient and environmentally conscience water heating. Heating using sorbent technology is discussed that uses primary thermal energy bypassing the need to convert thermal energy into electrical power. Advanced heat pump technologies and system designs that sustain water storage tank stratification are also reported.

1  Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters (ST-16-C056)

Moonis Ally, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Kyle Gluesenkamp, Ph.D., ORNL
Sorption heat pump water heaters represent a breakthrough opportunity in residential and commercial water heating as the most economical use of primary energy, relative to any other method of water heating, including electrical heat pump water heaters or integrated heat pumps. To bring this technology to practice, it is necessary to understand and quantify the limiting parameters. Focusing on adsorption-based heat pumps, the paper discusses the use of inexpensive adsorbents, required boundary temperatures and pressures, and limiting factors such as the influence of thermal mass on efficiency. The working materials are stipulated to be non-toxic with zero GWP and zero ODP.

2  Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters (ST-16-C057)

Kyle Gluesenkamp, Ph.D., ORNL
Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on two bases: site energy (as used by DOE for rating water heater efficiency in the US), and source energy.

For gas HPWHs, it is found that using typical component efficiencies, EF will be 75-90% of the heat pump cycle COP. The contribution of each parameter to the difference between EF and cycle thermal COP is as follows: burner efficiency accounts for 50-80% of difference, parasitic electrical draws for 10 – 30%. Independent of COP, the presence of a condensing heat exchanger can make a 5-10% difference in EF, and tank losses reduce EF by 6 – 10%, depending on the insulation level.

3  Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods That Promote Tank Temperature Stratification (ST-16-C058)

Kyle Gluesenkamp, Ph.D., ORNL
John Bush, P.E., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include; bringing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom and using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well.

In this work, the response of a tank that is stratified during heating is compared with the response of a tank that is mixed during heating, for first hour rating (FHR) and energy factor (EF) testing. Experimental results from FHR, EF, and UEF tests on a CO2-based HPWH with wrap-around coil and stratified tank are used to validate a simulation model. The implications on FHR, EF, and UEF of tank stratification are analyzed and discussed.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 56
Data Sources toward Urban-Scale Energy Modeling, Part 2

Smart Building Systems/Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Joshua New, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Technical Committee: 01.05 Computer Applications
Development of urban-scale building energy models is becoming of increased interest for many applications including city-wide energy supply/demand strategies, urban development planning, electrical grid stability and urban resilience. This seminar assembles several leaders in the field of urban-scale energy models to discuss an overview of the field as well as the data, algorithms, workflow and practical challenges addressed to create useful models of individual buildings at the scale of a city.

1  Integration of Reduced Order Energy Model with Geographical Information for Urban-Scale Building Energy Modelling under Urban Context

Jason Brown, School of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology
Qi Li, School of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology
This study demonstrates a newly proposed methodology that handles building energy modeling at urban scale using a reduced-order energy calculation engine with geographical information system (GIS). GIS provides general building information that either directly serves as model parameters, or links to the specific prototype building models for more detailed building and system specifications. Actual urban environment was considered by quantifying the micro environment boundary conditions in terms of mutual shading and urban heat island (UHI) effect through urban morphology. A case study of Manhattan, New York was presented to demonstrate the process. The calculation result and future extensions were discussed.

2  Urban Microclimate for Building Energy Models

Melissa Allen, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
In anticipation of both climate change and global urbanization, we conduct research of microclimate impacts on energy systems. We analyze and quantify the relationships among modeled and measured climatic conditions, urban morphology, land cover and energy use; and use these relationships to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. We apply: neighborhood resolution modeling and simulation of urban micrometeorological processes; projections informed by microclimate for future energy use under different urbanization and climate change scenarios; to produce analysis and visualization tools to help planners optimally use these projections to identify best strategies for energy-efficient urban morphological development.

3  Techniques for Rapid Generation of Urban-Scale Energy Models

David Scheer, Autodesk
City governments, NGOs, portfolio managers, and owners are looking better ways to reduce energy use in their existing building stock. Traditional methods rely on costly and time consuming audits, or on benchmarking tools with limited ability to identify retrofit measures. A more effective approach utilizes urban scale 3D models to perform virtual energy assessments. This workflow relies on building a 3D model from multiple types of GIS data, annual hourly energy simulations, geospatial analysis techniques, and statistical benchmarking. The following presentation outlines this workflow, and provides a case study for reducing the time and money needed to identify retrofit strategies.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 57
Energy Savings via ASHRAE Level III Auditing, Retrofit and Recommissioning: A Case Study at Hameetman Science Center, Occidental College II

Fundamentals and Applications
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Robyn Ellis, City of Hamilton - Public Works
Technical Committee: 07.03 Operation and Maintenance Management
A previous related session presented the initial ASHRAE Level III Audit and the gap between the results of that assessment and action being taken. This session focuses on a new field test method and diagnostics used to develop an actionable scope of work. To support the scope of work, several Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are used to score the actual installed performance of the systems included. Mr. Lipscomb discusses the development of these KPI, including measurements, calculations, and anticipated changes in performance that will result upon completion of the project. Past ASHRAE fellow Bob Baker contributed guidance for this project.

1  Occidental College Hameetman Science Building HVAC Retrofit and Recommissioning

Rob Falke, National Comfort Institute
The measurement and test methods used to diagnose and score the efficiency of these HVAC systems before and after this project was completed will be discussed. Many ten year old systems in the building were operating at less than 50% of rated capacity. Insight into emerging technologies used to identify and surgically repair the specific causes of these deficiencies will be presented.

2  Increases to Energy Efficiency, Reliability and Comfort

Ben Lipscomb, P.E., NCI
An analysis of the impact of the completed scope of work on the energy, comfort and increased reliability of the buildings will be offered in this segment of the seminar. The bearing of the improvements on peak load will also be discussed. The process of using commissioning data to benchmark and maintain the improved level system performance will also be spotlighted.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 58
Improved Modeling Characteristics of a Data Center without Compromising Physics or Breaking The Bank

Fundamentals and Applications
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Nick Gangemi, Northern Air Systems
Technical Committee: 09.09 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and Electronic Equipment
CoSponsor: 04.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
CFD modeling is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze an existing data center or explore the multiple design parameters of a new data center. The challenge is the extreme run time required. Often times this necessitates making choices on what to leave in and what to take out. This session explores several ways to speed up run time for multiple options while preserving accuracy and not sacrificing the physics.The session also takes a look at stanchions and why they should not be excluded in any raised floor model and validated from actual measurements.

1.00  Improving Model Calculation Time without Sacrificing Physics

Mark Seymour, CEng, Future Facilities Ltd
Data center CFD is often criticized for being too slow. In practice the speed rarely causes an issue since construction and hardware changes are normally planned in advance. However the common approach is to simplify the physics or excessively simplify the geometry resulting inaccurate or, perhaps worse still, uncertainty in whether the results are representative. This discusses two options for increasing productivity while retaining the full physics: Unstructured grid to reduce solution time while retaining the ability to model details where they are important and localized simulations to analyze the impact of small operational changes without a full simulation

2.00  The Compact Modeling of Raised-Floor Stanchions

Zachary Pardey, Schneider Electric
Stanchions (also referred to as jacks, posts, or pedestals) support the raised floor system common to most data centers.  These small-scale objects are often omitted from CFD models of data centers because they are thought to have negligible impact on airflow or because of the increased computational effort required to model them explicitly.   This presentation discusses how and why stanchions should be included in data center simulations.   A compact modeling approach is proposed which is based on a combination of experimental data and a new analytical model.  The model is validated by detailed CFD simulation and actual data center measurements.

3.00  Data Center Modeling Using Response Surface Methodology

Cheng-Xian Lin, Ph.D., Florida International University
In the early design of new data centers or modification of existing ones, the need for an optimal solution of many design parameters such as inlet air flow rate, inlet temperature, and server heat load is of paramount importance. The traditional way using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to create alternative designs options can be problematic because of their intensive running time. This presentation introduces the Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which is based on CFD data but allows the study of many design parameters in data centers more feasible and economical in terms of modeling time while preserving reasonable accuracy.

9:45 AM-10:45 AM
Seminar 59
Solar Decathlon 2015: Lessons Learned from the Largest Student-Led Solar Powered Housing Competition

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Joshua Rhodes, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin
Technical Committee: 07.05 Smart Building Systems
The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, net-zero and attractive. This seminar hosts two teams, including the overall winners as they talk about what worked and what didn't in the competition. Many teams tried moon-shot ideas including residential hydronic TES HVAC systems and fully connected, occupant-responding homes. This seminar gives the audience a deep look at some of the submissions to the competition.

1  The Nest Home: Successes, Failures and Lessons Learned

Steve Rusakiewicz
Winner of the 2015 US Dept of Energy Solar Decathlon, The Stevens Institute of Technology's SURE HOUSE is a residential prototype for a truly sustainable and resilient home for the New Jersey shore. This student-designed and -built home uses 90% less energy than a typical New Jersey home through Passive House measures, is flood-proofed using a high-performance plastic and fiber-composite protective shell, and is fully solar powered. These measures combine to create a home which seeks to reduce its contribution to global climate change while also bracing for the effects of rising sea levels and increasingly severe storms.

2  Nexushaus: A Net-Zero Energy and Water Urban Infill Home

Charles Upshaw, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin
Nexushaus is a new residential housing prototype that is responsive to the challenges of the energy-water “nexus” in the context of growth in the United States from Texas all the way west to California. Nexushaus offers residents the following features: A modular design system that can change as residents’ needs change over time, smaller, well designed interior spaces combined with generous outdoor living spaces, a photovoltaic array designed for maximum efficiency and flexibility, a hydronic air conditioning and heating system, a potable rainwater collection system with integrated thermal storage and a greywater garden irrigation system.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Conference Paper Session 20
Environmentally Conscious Building Designs

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
221 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kyle Knudten, McClure Engineering
HVAC modeling and design can take on some unique variations as engineers seek to make buildings more environmentally sound. This session examines better ways to integrate both building energy modeling and life cycle environmental impacts. It also provides a look at an earth-to-air heat exchange system used in a cold climate application; and reviews a hybrid system utilizing solar and geothermal for renewable energy.

1  Solar Hybrid and Geothermal Combined: New System Solution for Renewables (ST-16-C059)

Pernilla Gervind
Jessica Benson
This paper presents the energy efficiency, cost effectiveness and development potential of a new energy supply concept. The concept is based on solar hybrid, bore hole heat storage and a ground source heat pump. The back of the photovoltaic cells is cooled with cold water to increase the efficiency. The heated water is then connected to the cold side of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) and to bore holes. The heat from the solar hybrid can be used in several ways to increase the efficiency of the heat pump, e.g. as the direct source of heat or to recharge the bore holes. A housing association consistent of 70 terraced houses on the west coast of Sweden has installed this new system solution. The system consists of 337 m2solar hybrid panels mounted on the roof of the terraced houses, and GSHP with seven bore holes. During the year of 2015 detailed measurements on this full scaled system is performed. In this paper presents the results from these measurements, as well as analysis of the data. The analysis aims to quantify the energy efficiency of the system. The first results show that the system has a good efficiency and that the energy demand has decreased significantly. The monitoring has also been used as a tool to adjust the system and optimize the system solution. After only a few months of monitoring adjustments advices for improvements of the regulation strategies were suggested and implemented. These changes have led to a system that is now even more efficient than at the initial installation. In parallel to the monitoring the experiences from the housing association is investigated through interviews and enquiries. In the paper their perception of common ownership, obstacles in the implementation and advices on procurement will be presented. The paper aims to increase the knowledge about this system solution with solar hybrid and geothermal combined. The increased knowledge will eventually lead to a broader implementation of this system solution with 100 % renewables.

2  Energy Performance of Concrete Earth Tubes for the Pre-Heating and Pre-Cooling of Supply Air in Cold Climate (ST-16-C060)

Michel Tardif, P.Eng., Natural Resources Canada
In Canada, outside air temperatures can vary significantly during the year. A temperature gradient of 70 0C between the cooling and heating season is common in many regions. Because of the high thermal inertia of the soil, airflow circulating in earth tubes will benefit of  a significant temperature increase or decrease with respect to heating or cooling season . The advantages of an earth-to-air heat exchange system are its simplicity, high pre-cooling and pre-heating potential leading to fossil fuel savings and related emisssions and low operation maintenance costs. Very few experimental studies of ground temperature impact on heating with earth-to-air heat exchanger were found in the literature for cold climate. This paper deals with the performance of an earth-to-air heat exchange system for an operational Canadian building, with the aim of characterizing its efficiency. The building, called Earth Rangers, is a visitors’ centre built to educate children about biodiversity, conservation and the adoption of more sustainable behaviors. The earth tube system is an earth-to-air heat exchanger system which consists of nine 900 mm diameter, 20 m long pre-cast concrete pipes buried beneath the frost line (approximately 1500 mm below grade). Outside air is drawn through the buried concrete pipes allowing surrounding earth to moderate the temperature of the incoming air so that it is either pre-heated or pre-cooled depending on the time of year. The performance assessment of the earth tube system consisted of continuous monitoring between January and November 2014.Results from winter and summer field monitoring are presented in terms of overall heat exchanger effectiveness and comparing the pre-heating effectiveness of the  monitored earth tubes and exploring what could be done to improve the design. This long-term field study on earth tubes has confirmed the overall effectiveness of this passive means during the winter and summer conditions.

3  Expansion in Number of Parameters: Simulation of Energy and Indoor Climate in Combination with LCA (ST-16-C061)

Aleksander P. Otovic
Lotte M. B. Jensen, Ph.D., Technical University of Denmark
Kristoffer Negendahl, Technical University of Denmark
At the technical University of Denmark, research in energy balance in buildings in relation to indoor climate has been performed with good results for decades. During the last 2 decades, research in the field of Integrated Energy Design (IED) focusing on the earliest design phases has played a major role. Research demonstrate that the largest effect in relation achieving net zero energy buildings is obtained when indoor climate and energy simulation tools are applied from the first architectural sketches, where geometry, façade design  and orientation etc.  is determined. Large architectural offices and engineering consultancies in the region have invested in software and interdisciplinary design teams and perform Integrated Energy Design (IED). Legislation has been altered; Simulations of indoor climate and energy balance is required in order to obtain building permits. IED has been rolled out extensively in the building industry. Having reduced the energy needed to operate the indoor environment to almost zero, by designing with knowledge and optimizing systems, the energy needed to construct the building and its systems comes forth as important.  The CO2 impact of buildings becomes an important parameter because sustainability certification systems like Deutche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) has taken a lead in Europe. The DGNB system includes Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) and Danish government has stated that Denmark must be CO2 neutral by 2050. The focus shifts from energy and indoor climate to CO2 impact in relation to design. The experience from the decades of IED manifests, that the largest gain in reduction stems from the early design phases. LCA in relation to buildings has to include the energy needed to operate the buildings indoor climate as well as embodied CO2 in the building.  This makes the simulations far more complex. LCA thus tends to be placed in the last design phases and used for evaluation: only a single iteration is needed. However real-time LCA simulation tools are required, if designers are to base design decisions on not only knowledge concerning indoor climate and energy balance but also LCA. The paper presents the efforts at DTU, Department of civil engineering, to develop  real-time LCA simulation tools including indoor climate and energy balance simulation (based on Energy +) and first round of implementing the tool at well esteemed architectural offices in the Nordic Countries. The development of the real-time LCA-indoor climate- energy balance tool was developed by funding from the Nordic Built Foundation.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Conference Paper Session 21
Experience with Alternative Refrigerants

Advances in Refrigeration Systems and Alternative Refrigerants
224 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Michael Pate, Ph.D., Texas A&M University
Due to continuing regulatory pressures, the search for low-GWP alternative refrigerants is ongoing. This session provides results of extensive testing of various low-GWP refrigerants in various HVAC applications, including a high temperature heat pump.

1  Measured Performance of a High Temperature Heat Pump with HFO-1336mzz-Z as the Working Fluid (ST-16-C063)

Franz Helminger, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Konstantinos Kontomaris, Ph.D., Chemours Fluorochemicals
Julian Pfaffl
Michael Hartl, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Thomas Fleckl, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Industrial heating consumes a significant fraction of the energy consumed globally. Heating at temperatures higher than about 100°C is predominantly provided through combustion of fossil fuels with uncertain prices and well recognized environmental impacts. A significant fraction of industrial input energy is lost as low temperature waste heat (e.g. warm exhaust gases or cooling water) that could be lifted by high temperature heat pumps to process relevant temperatures. This paper assesses the potential for providing heating at temperatures between 100oC and 150oC through electrically-driven mechanical compression heat pumps. It reports the measured performance of a lab-scale reciprocating heat pump with HFO-1336mzz-Z (CF3CH=CHCF3; previously referred to as DR-2) as the working fluid over a range of conditions representative of intended applications (e.g. drying or steam generation). HFO-1336mzz-Z has attractive safety, environmental and thermodynamic properties and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Various compressor technologies, compressor lubricants, heat exchanger designs, expansion valve types and cycles with and without an internal heat exchanger were considered. Suitable equipment components were selected to meet the requirements for testing at evaporating temperatures between 30°C and 115°C and condensing temperatures in the range of 75°C to 150°C. Test results are compared with predictions based on ideal cycle thermodynamic modeling and the advantages of HFO-1336mzz-Z over other refrigerants are discussed. HFO-1336mzz-Z could enable more environmentally sustainable industrial heat pumps for the utilization of abundantly available low temperature heat to meet heating duties at higher temperatures, with higher energy efficiencies and lower environmental impacts than with incumbent working fluids.

2  Performance of a Four-Ton Rooftop Unit with Low GWP R410A Alternatives (ST-16-C064)

Kenneth Schultz, Ph.D., Ingersoll Rand
Stephen Kujak, Trane
The HVAC&R industry continues to evaluate low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to R410A.  This paper reports performance of a 4 RT commercial rooftop heat pump with R410A as a baseline along with potential alternatives DR-55, DR-5A (R454B), and R32.  An adjustable frequency drive (AFD) was installed to allow the same capacity to be achieved with each refrigerant, matching compressor capacity to heat exchanger capacity.  Adjustable thermal expansion valves (TXVs) were installed to achieve the same compressor suction superheats in each case. 

Measurements of performance at the AHRI Standard 210/240 rating points were made with each refrigerant.  In addition, tests were run under outdoor temperatures ranging from 65F to 125F (18C to 52C).  A simple thermodynamic cycle model that matches average saturation temperatures in the evaporator and condenser along with a common compressor isentropic efficiency indicates that the capacity with DR-55 should be 2.5% lower than with R410A and should have an efficiency 1% higher.  Actual performance with DR-55 matched the capacity of R410A at the same compressor speed (60 Hz) with an efficiency 4% higher.  Similarly positive results were obtained with DR-5A.  With R32, the compressor speed needed to be reduced to 53 Hz to match the baseline capacity.  Efficiency was 3% higher than baseline.  As expected, R32 produced compressor discharge temperatures (CDTs) that were elevated by 20F and increased to 40F at the higher ambient conditions over R410A while DR-55 and DR-5A CDTs were only 10F above the baseline.  

The results here demonstrate that DR-55 and DR-5A are "design compatible" alternatives to R410A.  That is, they can be used in existing equipment designs with very little modification.

3  Drop-in Tests and Simulation Results of R410A and R32/1234ze Blend in a R32 Dedicated Mini-Split (ST-16-C065)

Osami Kataoka, Daikin Industries, Ltd.
Fumio Ota
This paper explains the drop-in test results of R410A and R32/1234ze blend to a R32 dedicated mini-split air conditioner as well as simulation results. Usually, R32 and blends are dropped in to R410A units, but here the tests were carried out in opposite direction. As the test unit employs variable speed compressor, the paper clarifies the relative performance between these refrigerants under wide range of capacity. Since 32/1234ze blend is zeotropic, the impact of the change in flow velocity of refrigerant in heat exchange is clearly observed. Tests and simulations of the sample unit are also performed at high ambient conditions with these refrigerants. Such operation is now focused on due to the Montreal protocol discussion.

4  Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications (ST-16-C066)

Som Shrestha, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Edward A. Vineyard, Texas A&M University
James Lenz, Bristol Compressors International, Inc.
Kevin Mumpower, Bristol Compressors International, Inc.
In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of HFC-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for various applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning applications. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

5  Hot Surface Ignition Testing for 2L Class Refrigerants (ST-16-C067)

Mary E. Koban
Patrick R. Coughlan, Chemours Fluoroproducts
Faced with more stringent regulatory pressures, the demand for environmentally friendly substances is high. The number of low global warming (GWP) refrigerants entering the market is rapidly increasing to meet market needs.  Many of the new low GWP refrigerants are “mildly flammable” or “2L” as classified by ISO 817 and ANSI/ASHRAE Std 34. The new refrigerant flammability class provides the heating/air-conditioning/refrigeration industry potential options to meet environmental regulations with equipment designed to meet reduced flammability concerns.  Mildly flammable refrigerants are defined as refrigerants which have burning velocity less than 10 cm/sec and heat of combustion (HOC) less than 19,000 kJ/kg.  Although not part of classification requirements, mildly flammable refrigerants have higher lower flammability level (LFL) and exhibit higher minimum ignition energy (MIE).  Current MIE testing of 2L refrigerants has employed ASTM E582, which use an electrical spark ignition source.  Results from that testing has shown that typically, class 2L refrigerants have MIE values which are two to four orders of magnitude greater than highly flammable or ISO 817/ANSI 34 class 3 refrigerants. The high MIE values determined for mildly flammable refrigerants denotes that they are typically very difficult to ignite. A relatively unexplored potential ignition source is a hot surface which can be found in air conditioning auxiliary heaters and other refrigeration systems.  Maximum hot surface temperatures are also specified in several equipment standards.   Recently, work was conducted to review potential ignition/non-ignition for several 2L refrigerants which were released onto a hot surface. A new test was designed to simulate a 2L refrigerant leak onto a hot surface within a piece of equipment.    In particular, individual refrigerants were released onto a heated metal surface and potential ignition was observed for a set time period after the refrigerant was released.  Interestingly, ignition values noted were several hundred degrees higher than literature auto-ignition temperature (AIT) values. This work summarizes the test apparatus used, the hot surface ignition testing conducted with various 2L refrigerants, and ignition testing results.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Conference Paper Session 22
System Alternatives, Design Options and BIM Productivity

HVAC Systems and Equipment
225 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: David Yashar, Ph.D., National Institute of Standards and Technology
This session compares multiple HVAC systems, including water-based, air-based or refrigerant-based systems and the benefits they provide to a building. The session also addresses the concept of hybrid systems in large facilities with multiple types of occupancies, space operation and thermal loading. This session also reviews the benefits of integrating information into BIM for the use of design of these systems and improving quality control.

1  Evaluation of VRF Systems with Comparisons to Traditional HVAC Systems (ST-16-C068)

Guolian Wu, Ph.D., Samsung Electronics of America
Dochul Choi, Ph.D., Samsung Electronics of America
Wanyong Kim, Samsung Electronics
Gyoungtae Seo
Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems have been gaining popularity globally, particularly in Asia and Europe for cooling and heating in the built environment in the last two decades. In recent years, VRF systems are starting to fill a growing niche in renovation projects in the U.S. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a large scale installation of VRF systems with comparisons to traditional HVAC systems.  These VRF systems are part of a mega HVAC project that includes design, installation, commissioning, and operation of HVAC systems for 6 almost identical building complexes located in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The building complexes, with 10 above-ground floors and 4 subterranean floors, primarily house offices, conference rooms, auditoria, R&D labs, cafeteria, restaurants, utility, and machine rooms. Four of these buildings, Complex A, B, D, and E are equipped with a mélange of HVAC systems consisting of centrifugal chillers and absorption chillers, and VRF systems for their cooling and heating needs, while Complex C is 100% served by VRF systems and Complex F is 100% covered by traditional HVAC systems. The total installed HVAC equipment includes 2,000 tons of centrifugal chillers, 4,000 tons absorption chillers, 2,145 tons of geothermal VRF systems, and 6,335 tons of air- and water-cooled VRFs. Thanks to the similarities in architecture, construction, occupancy, and thermal load of these 6 building complexes, the mega project provides a unique opportunity to conduct objective evaluations and comparisons between VRF systems and traditional HVAC systems over a wide range of aspects: energy, comfort, maintenance costs, and initial investments.  The objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the energy performance and other benefits of VRF systems in comparison with traditional HVAC systems, and (2) to evaluate if VRF is a technically and economically viable solution for large building complexes. The paper also presents several new technologies implemented in this project including (1) variable air volume (VAV) discharge temperature control technology, (2) VAV movable diffuser. The discharge temperature controls technology regulates the air flow to maintain the discharge air temperature instead of directly controlling the returning air temperature resulting in much less temperature swings. The movable diffuser utilizes Coanda effect to achieve optimal temperature distribution in air conditioned spaces. Lastly, an in-situ approach for determining the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of VRF systems is proposed for real-time energy performance evaluation.

2  Hybrid Approaches to HVAC Systems Design of a R&D Complex to Achieve Green Building Certification and Optimal Comfort (ST-16-C069)

Guolian Wu, Ph.D., Samsung Electronics of America
Dochul Choi, Ph.D., Samsung Electronics of America
Wanyong Kim, Samsung Electronics
Jason Kim
R5 Complex, located in Suwon, Republic of Korea, is a cutting edge R&D center that focuses on research and development of consumer electronic devices. As a multifunctional building, it houses R&D laboratories, conference rooms, auditoria, offices, cafeteria, restaurants, utility, mechanical and electrical rooms. With these heterogeneous characteristics of thermal load throughout the complex, it is difficult to have a one-size-fits-all type of HVAC system that can achieve green building certification and optimal human comfort at the same time. This paper uses R5 Complex as a case study to examine and illustrate how a hybrid approach can be used to provide an optimal HVAC solution for massive R&D complexes to meet the energy and comfort requirements.   R5 complex consists of 25 floors including 4 subterranean floors with a total usable space of 300,000 m2.  According to the load characteristics, the complex is divided into three big zones: outer periphery, inner periphery, and core.  The outer periphery accounts for 50% of thermal load of the entire complex. It is directly exposed to the outdoor and sunlight, thus the heating and cooling loads fluctuate the most throughout the day. The HVAC needs for the outer periphery require high energy efficiency HAVC systems that are capable of responding to changing thermal loads quickly. To meet these requirements, a total of 15 variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems with 190 indoor units of various types are used. These systems are equipped with high efficiency inverter driven scroll compressors. In order to further improve the energy efficiency to meet green building certification, some VRF systems use geothermal sources. The inner periphery has a relatively constant heat and cooling load, is hence serviced by 4 absorption chillers. The core zone is occupied primarily by special laboratories, its HVAC needs are covered by three turbo chillers. This paper will begin with an architecture overview and design objectives of HVAC systems design, followed by in-depth analysis and comparisons of different HVAC systems design options in terms of energy efficiency, human comfort, and initial investment and system life cycle costs. Extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies were conducted to investigate the impact of different types of indoor unit on indoor temperature and air flow distribution. This paper presents the key findings of these studies for optimal selection of indoor units.

3  Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House (ST-16-C070)

Ongun B. Kazanci, Technical University of Denmark
Masanori Shukuya, Ph.D., Tokyo City University
Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D., Technical University of Denmark
Different indoor terminal units can be used to heat and cool indoor spaces. These terminal units mostly rely on convection and radiation heat transfer mechanisms but their relative ratios can vary significantly for air-based and water-based systems with implications on whole system performance, in terms of energy and exergy. In addition to the energy and exergy input required at the heating and cooling plants, the energy use of auxiliary components (fans and pumps) also vary depending on the chosen terminal unit.

In order to study the energy and exergy performances of air-based and water-based systems, an air heating and cooling system, and a radiant floor heating and cooling system were chosen, respectively. A single-family house was used as a case study assuming that different space heating and cooling systems were used to condition the indoor space of this house. In addition to the thermal energy and exergy inputs to the system, energy and exergy inputs to the auxiliary components were also studied. Both heating and cooling cases were considered and three climatic zones were studied; Copenhagen (Denmark), Yokohama (Japan), and Ankara (Turkey).

The analysis showed that the water-based radiant heating and cooling system performed better than the air-based system both in terms of energy and exergy input to the heating/cooling plant. The relative benefits of the water-based system over the air-based system vary depending on the climatic zone. The air-based system also requires higher auxilliary energy input compared to the water-based system and this difference is mainly due to the required air-flow rates to address the heating and cooling demands, indicating a clear benefit for the water-based system over the air-based system.

The auxilliary energy and exergy input to different systems is an important parameter for the whole system performance and its effects become more pronounced and can be studied better in terms of exergy than energy. In order to fully benefit from the water-based systems, the auxiliary energy use should be minimized.

4  Enhancing Mechanical Engineering Productivity with BIM (ST-16-C071)

Blake Guither, P.E.
Many engineering companies have used Revit and have already crossed the first major hurdles of implementation, standards, and productivity. However, firms are not using data and metrics from connected systems in Revit for design, coordination, and quality control. Time is being spent entering data and getting families to schedule as opposed to actually reviewing and using data in the model.

One of the larger sets of external information for a project is the HVAC cooling and heating loads. By exporting space properties (i.e. Name, No., Floor Area, etc.) from Revit thru gbXML to load & energy analysis software, data entry time and errors are reduced.  Once HVAC loads are completed the calculated results can be brought back into the Revit model. This allows a Space Airflow Schedule in Revit to be utilized by engineers to also show diffuser airflows.  Calculated airflows are calculated from the Load software. This removes the need to go to each view/sheet and edit and sum airflows. Once diffusers have airflows, then the ductwork sizes can be reviewed and adjusted by using velocity and pressure drop diagrams in Revit. These color coded ductwork diagrams can be setup to flag or highlight a section of duct that falls out of a company’s design standard tolerance range. The airflow from all the diffusers that connects to a piece of equipment is also able to be verified and checked in a Schedule against the scheduled airflow value. The gas load in a schedule for any piece of equipment can also be used to drive gas flow (CFH) thru the gas piping systems.  This process is dynamic which saves the time of adding up CFH values. Revit also provides the ability to perform ASHRAE 62.1-2007 ventilation calculations for constant volume single zone systems.  The setup is very easy at the beginning of a project and also dynamically updates if the design changes.

The calculations and design workflows outlined above are just the beginning of the potential productivity gains.  Other gains come from Fixture Unit propagation for Sanitary and Vent systems, and even the area served by roof drains.  These productivity gains require some investment time to set up workflows, schedules and views.  This investment will not only provide additional productivity and consistency, but also better quality control resulting from all of the information residing in one location.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 60
BIM and HVAC System Design

Fundamentals and Applications
222 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Stephen Roth, P.E., Carmel Software Corp.
Technical Committee: 01.05 Computer Applications
CoSponsor: MTG.BIM Building Information Modeling
This seminar discusses how Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools are changing the way engineers perform HVAC system design including duct design, hot and cold water piping design, plumbing and fabrication. One speaker discusses how BIM authoring tools are helping to: Coordinate duct design, calculate duct/piping pressure drop, perform design validation and more. A second speaker discusses how conceptual HVAC design schematic tools work with BIM authoring tools. A third speaker discusses how these various tools from different vendors are able to communicate with one another using open source interoperability languages.

1  BIM Software and HVAC System Design

Martin Schmid, P.E., Autodesk
Martin discusses how BIM authoring tools perform the following: Coordinating duct design, sizing calculations, pressure drop calculations, design validation – visualize areas of high velocity / pressure drop and pressure loss reporting. Martin uses an example from the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that will show near apples-to-apples comparison of the results from the BIM software vs. the results from hand calcs.

2  HVAC Schematic System Design

Joe Simmons, P.E., HVAC Solution
Joe discusses software used for schematic modeling of HVAC systems and why it is so important for initial conceptual design. Such tools are important for automatically modeling simple and complex air, hydronic and steam systems in new or existing buildings. They are also used to calculate ASHRAE 62.1 loads. Through use of interop schemas like gbXML, HVAC schematic tools can import HVAC load information and export HVAC system information to and from BIM authoring and analysis software tools.

3  Sharing Information between BIM and HVAC Design Software Tools

Stephen Roth, P.E., Carmel Software Corp.
Stephen gives an overview of various interoperability schemes like the open-source Green Building XML that allow building information modeling (BIM) authoring tools to transfer information to HVAC analysis tools. As BIM becomes more accepted, it is vital that information be shared between various HVAC design tools. For example, HVAC engineers are able to extract the mechanical and building property information to perform duct and pipe design, and HVAC load calculations. As software becomes more available in the "cloud", interoperability schemas become much more important since information needs to be transferred in a structured format from mobile and desktop devices.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 61
How Deep Can We Go? Designing and Drilling Deeper Geothermal Systems

HVAC Systems and Equipment
223 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Scott Hackel, P.E., Seventhwave
Technical Committee: 06.08 Geothermal Heat Pumps and Energy Recovery Applications
Space limitations and other constraints are forcing engineers to design deeper boreholes for ground-source heat pump systems in buildings. There are advantages and disadvantages to doing deeper than typical boreholes, and there are specific limitations on depth in some circumstances. This seminar covers these considerations, both through calculation and design examples, as well as practical lessons learned from the field. The new, deep/ultradeep borehole, hydrostatic differential calculations from the 2015 ASHRAE Applications Handbook are also presented. The latest developments in non-cementatious grouts are introduced to help designers avoid pipe collapse in deeper boreholes without sacrificing performance.

1  Installation Practices and Hydrostatics of Deep Boreholes

Ryan Carda, P.E., Geo-Connections Inc
Space limitations and other factors are forcing engineers to utilize deep boreholes to meet design requirements for GSHP systems.  Hydrostatic pressures must be considered to safely complete deep, grouted borehole installation.  Proper installation methods along with the necessary calculations will be presented.  This session includes calculation examples using the procedures that were introduced in Chapter 34 of the 2015 ASHRAE Applications Handbook.

2  Swedish Practices and Experience with Deep Boreholes

Jose Acuna, Ph.D., KTH Royal Institute of Technology
This presentation covers a number of Swedish design and practical experiences and challenges when installing GSHP systems in densely populated areas. Deep borehole heat exchangers are a primary solution in these scenarios, and are the focus of this presenation. The presentation includes economic, technical and practical aspects. It also highlights ongoing research projects dealing with deep borehole heat exchangers.

3  Evolution of High and Low Density Geothermal Grouts

Charles P Remund, Ph.D., GeoPro, Inc.
Grouting is a critical part of closed-loop ground heat exchanger installation. It is needed for environmental protection, borehole integrity, as well as thermal system performance. This session covers the important aspects of grout properties, selection and installation, with a focus on the additional challenges that occur when boreholes are drilled deeper. This session also introduces the latest developments in bentonite-based grouts that are available to help the designer avoid pipe collapse in deeper boreholes, without sacrificing thermal performance.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 62
Is It My Home or Is It Me? Latest Knowledge about IAQ in Homes

Indoor Environment: Health, Comfort, Productivity
226 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Kevin Kennedy, MPH, CIEC, MS, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics
Technical Committee: Environmental Health Committee
With increasing interest by homeowners in the role environmental exposure in their home might play in the health and well-being of themselves and their families, how much do we know about the role indoor environmental exposure from the building sources serves in causing chronic health conditions vs. the role human activity plays in indoor exposure? Which is more important? This seminar includes experts on different aspects of this discussion. Come and learn about the significant and complicated role both play in health.

1  It Is Definitely You: The Role of Human Activities

Jeffrey Siegel, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin

Dr. Jacobs presents information about studies of indoor environmental quality and health outcomes during weatherization and rehabilitation. The focus will be on building interventions and retrofits that result in reduced air contaminants, reduced moisture balance and improved self-reported health outcomes.

2  It’s You and Me Both: Lessons From IAQ Studies in Multifamily Housing

Gary Adamkiewicz, Ph.D., Harvard School of Public Health
Dr. Adamkiewicz presents evidence from studies of environmental exposures and health in multifamily housing to show how environmental problems cluster by site, reinforcing the roles of structure and ‘systems’ in shaping poor indoor environmental quality and health.  He offers suggestions on where residents can make the biggest changes, and where ‘top down’ intervention is necessary.

3  Ventilation, Indoor Air and Health Outcomes

Dave Jacobs
Occupants are the cause of, and solution to, most residential indoor air quality problems.  Thus any comprehensive approach to reduce exposure indoors has to address occupant activities and provide information for occupants to make good decisions.  This presentation describes some of the major sources in US homes, including cooking, smoking and e-cigarettes, convenience combustion (e.g., candles), cleaning activities, use of consumer products, resuspension, and outdoor air.  Each source is paired with strategies for mitigating exposure from that source.  Data from field studies in single family and multifamily residences is used to provide context and specific examples of concentrations and emissions.

4  Ventilation, Indoor Air Quality and Where the CO Comes from

Paul W. Francisco, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This presentation provides results from several recent field studies on indoor air quality in residential retrofit.  One focus of the session will be to examine the impact of newer ventilation standards on indoor concentrations of several contaminants indoors, including carbon dioxide, humidity, formaldehyde, radon, and VOCs.  The second focus will be to review results from three studies that included an assessment of the source of elevated carbon monoxide in homes.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 63
Moving Beyond Typical Year Weather Data

Research Summit
228 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Didier Thevenard, Ph.D., P.E., Numerical Logics Inc.
Technical Committee: 04.02 Climatic Information
The common practice in building performance modeling is to use ‘Typical Year’ weather data. Such data is statistically selected from the long-term record based on representative statistics for solar radiation and dry bulb temperature. However, although the use of a single typical year is convenient, it often leads to severe inaccuracies in the estimation of building loads and energy consumption. It is time to rethink alternatives to the use of Typical Year files. This seminar provides a deeper understanding of the problems linked to the use of Typical Years and walks the audience through several alternatives.

1  How Much Does Energy Use Vary with 'Actual' Weather from Year to Year?

Drury Crawley, Ph.D., Bentley Systems, Inc.
Historically, building simulation users have used ‘typical’ year weather data to represent climatic conditions for a location or region. With advent of increasingly powerful computers, using a single year of data is no longer necessary. Prior studies have shown that a single year of data often does not well represent the range of climate conditions over a period. We demonstrate how several sets of international typical meteorological data sets compare to the actual period of record that they represent, and demonstrate the inter-annual variability of energy use due to real weather data in comparison to TMY-type data.

2  How Much Do HVAC Loads Change Due to the Variability of Year-to-Year Weather?

Yu Joe Huang, White Box Technologies
Typical year weather files give a convenient snapshot of the likely weather conditions in a location. However, they provide no information of the year-to-year variability of the weather, which can have a dramatic impact on a building's heating and cooling energy use. This presentation shows a procedure using the variable-base degree day method to determine from the period of record which years would produce the highest heating or cooling loads and calculate the standard deviation in loads from the typical year. These results are building-specific, depending on how sensitive is the building to conduction, convection, or radiation heat flows.

3  Understanding the Temporal and Spatial Variability of New Generation Gridded Tmys

Anthony Lopez
Aron Habte, NREL
Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data sets provide industry standard resource information for building designers and the solar industry. Historically, TMY data sets were only available for certain locations, but current TMY data sets are available on the same grid as the new 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) data and are referred to as the gridded TMY. In this presentation, we analyze the temporal and spatial variability of the typical year data sets, thereby providing insight into the representativeness of a particular TMY data set for use in building performance modeling.

11:00 AM-12:30 PM
Seminar 64
Net Zero from Foundation to Financing: Residential Buildings

Renewable Energy Systems and Net Zero Buildings
227 (America's Center Convention Complex)
Chair: Janice Means, P.E., Lawrence Technological University
Technical Committee: 06.07 Solar Energy Utilization
This session discusses the strategies that can be implemented which will lead a home to become a near/net zero energy building (NZEB). Also, financing models for the U.S. residential PV market are explored, including third-party power purchase agreements (PPAs) and lease-based financing. In addition, review of The European Directive on the Energy Performance in Buildings (EPBD) that mandates nearly-zero energy new buildings by 2020 is discussed, including characteristics and benchmarks of NZEBs from within existing building stock.

1  NZEB Multidisciplinary Project Development to Reach a Zero CO2 Emission Sustainable Eco-Settlement: Technical, Physical, Legal, Financial and Regulatory Issues

Marija Todorovic, Ph.D., P.E., Dubai Electricity and Water Authority
This paper presents methodology of study of the synergetic energy/environment’s constrains relevant to the residential buildings settlement’s sustainability. Presented are results of the design of a sustainable Net Zero Energy Buildings Settlement. Implementing integrated building design building’s dynamic behavior and energy efficiency have been optimized by the BPS resulting in crucial reduction of loads of the initial designs. Further multidisciplinary engineering optimization lead to the settlement of NZEB status (HVAC system’s heat pumps using sea water, and other building’s technical systems powered exclusively by RES (solar thermal, PV, wind and biomass), and water recycling bio-aquatic water treatment are closing the village eco-sustainability.

2  NZEB Characteristics of European Residential Buildings and Assessment of Refurbishment Scenarios Using Building Typologies

Constantinos Balaras, Ph.D., Group Energy Conservation (IERSD-NOA)
The European Directive on the Energy Performance in Buildings (EPBD) mandates nearly-zero energy new buildings by 2020. This presentation reviews characteristics and benchmarks of NZEBs from within existing building stock. A European-developed framework for assessing residential building refurbishment is presented based on regional/national building typologies for large building portfolios. This procedure enables key experts/non-experts to ensure high-quality retrofits, check regulatory compliance, track/steer refurbishment processes and quantify energy savings. The presentation concludes with results of future EU Member State refurbishment strategies to make realistic projections of residential heating energy use and support efforts for meeting energy savings or emissions targets.

3  What Does It Take for a Residential Home to be NZEB?

Khalid Nagidi, Energy Management Consulting Group
It all starts with a holistic approach from the ground up with the aim to first, reduce our home energy consumption by installing high performance building envelope, including but not limited to double glazed windows with low emissivity, better insulation that exceeds minimum building energy code, use of high efficiency appliances and HVAC equipment. And second, install solar electric (PV) and thermal systems to handle the remaining annual energy requirement. High performance building envelope combined with high efficiency appliances and equipment, and integration of solar energy systems can lead our homes to become NZEB. A case study is discussed.

4  Options, Trends and Regulatory Challenges in Residential Solar PV Finance and Ownership

James Leidel, Oakland University

To achieve zero net energy in residential dwellings, a roof mounted PV system is typically the enabling technology at the center of the energy design.  This presentation explores financing models and trends for the U.S. residential PV market.  Third-party power purchase agreements (PPAs) and lease based financing in the solar industry is less than a decade old, but they are rapidly becoming the dominant PV system delivery methods.  The PPA model faces regulatory and legislative challenges in some states.  These issues are presented and discussed with a look forward toward future developments.

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